By Robert and Jeremy Paxman Harris
The identify of this ebook by way of British television newshounds is from the 1919 Nobel Prize attractiveness speech of Fritz Haber, the German chemist whose prize used to be for synthesizing ammonia yet who was once such a lot famous for guiding the 1st use of poison fuel. "In no destiny warfare will the army be capable of forget about poison gas," he acknowledged. "It is a better kind of killing." Harris and Paxman's historical past of chemical-biological war (CBW) basically starts with global warfare I. In global conflict II Hitler stockpiled effective nerve-gas guns he was once afraid to exploit for worry of retaliation; Winston Churchill was once able to drop gasoline bombs on Germany. The U.S workplace of Strategic providers mentioned sneaking lady intercourse hormones into Hitler's nutrients so his mustache might drop off and his voice could upward push. Later either side within the chilly conflict outfitted CBW arsenals, the U.S. used defoliants and tear gasoline in Vietnam, the Soviet Union has used gasoline and probably organic war in Afghanistan. regardless of agreements to prohibit them, the guns persist. via one trustworthy estimate, the U.S. has 150,000 lots of bombs, shells and mines containing nerve or mustard fuel; the Soviets' stockpile is unknown. And, the authors warn, examine in genetics could result in much more "effective" guns. - humans
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Additional info for A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare
Of some plants and may pose an ingestion hazard. 5). If the animals’ eyes have been exposed to agent, they should be irrigated with water or saline solution for a minimum of 30 minutes. , hay or grain) should be destroyed. The remaining material should be quarantined until tested. Leaves of forage vegetation could still retain sufﬁcient nerve agent to produce mild to moderate effects for several weeks post release, depending on the level of contamination and the weather conditions. G-series nerve agents that have translocated to the leaves or fruit of plants may pose an extended ingestion hazard.
However, hydrolysis of GV-series agents produces acidic by-products; therefore, a large excess of base will be needed to ensure Ellison: “1434_c001” — 2007/7/14 — 10:07 — page 13 — #13 14 Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents complete destruction of the agents. Due to the extreme volume required, household bleach is not an efﬁcient means of decontaminating large quantities of these agents. Avoid using highly concentrated caustic solutions because agents can become insoluble. Any agent that does not dissolve in the aqueous caustic solution will not be hydrolyzed.
LC50 : Concentration of vapor or aerosolized agent necessary to kill half of the exposed population. , concentration and duration of exposure) are known but a generalized dose–response (LCt50 ) is not available. LD50 : Amount of liquid or solid material required to kill half of the exposed population. Values are for ingestion (Ing), percutaneous (Per) exposures, and subcutaneous injection (Sub). These values are expressed as total grams per individual. Ellison: “1434_c000” — 2007/7/4 — 20:25 — page xxxi — #31 xxxii Explanatory Notes Miosis: Concentration in parts per million (ppm) required to induce signiﬁcant constriction of the pupil of the eye following a 2-min exposure to the agent.