By N.K. Srinivasa Rao, K.S. Shivashankara, R.H. Laxman
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IPP is converted to a C20 product, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which is further converted to C40 carotenoid, phytoene. The phytoene via series of reaction intermediates like violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and xanthoxin 2 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Abiotic Stress Tolerance involving cyclization and hydroxylation reactions is converted to ABA (Nambara and Marion-Poll 2005). The plants under stress show inductions in the activities of enzymes associated with the ABA biosynthesis and relative induction in mRNA leading to ABA accumulations.
Similarly, OsABF1 in roots is involved in abiotic stress responses and ABA signaling (Hossain et al. 2010). In tomato, a bZIP transcription factor SIAREB1 participates in abiotic stress by regulating oxidative-stressrelated proteins, LEA proteins, and lipid transfer proteins (Orellana et al. 2010). The ABA controls abiotic stress signaling, regulated by three components: (1) pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR), (2) protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), and (3) SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting)-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) (Mehrotra et al.
Xu and Qi (1993) reported that a slowly developing drought did not promote ethylene or altered ACC levels, while rapidly developing drought enhanced both ethylene and ACC levels. Narayana et al. (1991) also reported more ethylene upon rapid loss of water. Beltrano et al. (1997) observed slight changes in ethylene in leaves under moderate or severe stress conditions. Wright (1980) and Hoffman et al. (1983) showed that ABA interacts with ethylene metabolism by regulating the ACC levels. Ethylene exerts responses through modulation of gene expression function at transcriptional level by ERF (ethylene response factor) by regulating gene expression under abiotic stress conditions (Zhang et al.