By Edwin Henry Barton
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Additional resources for An introduction to the mechanics of fluids, 1915th Edition
28 shows this model, in which δ0 is the initial liquid film thickness, δmin the minimum liquid film thickness, LL the length of the liquid slug, LG the length of the vapor bubble, Lp the length of the pair (liquid slug/bubble), Ldry the length of the dryout zone, Lfilm the length of the liquid film, q the heat flux and r, d the radius and diameter of the tube. The new model illustrates the strong dependence of heat transfer on the bubble frequency, the lengths of the system elements, and the liquid film thickness, and is so far only applicable to the slug flow regime.
Unfortunately, bubble crowding may lead to significant vapor coalescence, eventually interfering with the liquid access to the device surface. Once the vapor–liquid exchange process is interrupted, the power dissipated in the device it- Fig. 12 Pictures from IBM paper showing high-performance liquid cooling technology using micro-channels. Reprinted from Colgan et al. 4 Comparison of pressure drops between PG 50% and water for the same thermal resistance Liquid Flow rate (ml/min) Pressure drop (kPa) Water PG 50% 200 220 80 900 self will no longer be removed and the device temperature begins to escalate out of control.
4 Steam–Fluid Flow 47 Fig. 5 mm, L = 70 mm, Ts = 30 ◦ C and ΔTsub = 3 K. Reprinted from Revellin et al. (2006) with permission liquid Reynolds number, ReL = Gd/ μL , WeG is the vapor Weber number, WeG = G2 d/(σ ρG ), and WeL is the liquid Weber number, WeL = G2 d/(σ ρL). The first flow pattern zone corresponds to the isolated bubble (IB) regime where the bubble generation rate is much higher than the coalescence rate. It includes both bubbly flow and/or slug flows and is present up to the onset of coalescence process domination.