Analog Electronics: Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing by David Crecraft, Stephen Gergely

By David Crecraft, Stephen Gergely

The content material has been conscientiously designed to fulfill the necessities of first and moment 12 months scholars of digital engineering, communications engineering and telecommunications, following complete honours measure courses or two-year classes together with HNC/HND.

  • A thoroughly new analog electronics textbook for the electronic age
  • Coverage excellent for classes with a communications / instant focus

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Extra resources for Analog Electronics: Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

Sample text

It is often stated as -20dB/decade (of frequency). In other words, if the frequency changes (say increases) by a decade, a factor of 10, the gain will also change (decrease) by a factor of 10 or - 2 0 dB. Note that a change in frequency by a factor of 2 is called an octave (as in musical terminology). ^ - 6 dB. So, the slope can also be stated as -6dB/octave. In the region of the cut-off frequency, w h e r e / = / o and so iflf^) = 1 , the actual curve departs considerably from its two straight line asymptotes.

Td Fig. 33. processing is essentially a drive for reducing the time-constant and therefore the rise time of devices and circuits. The processors in personal computers at the time of writing operate at a frequency of more than 1 GHz corresponding to a pulse duration of 1 ns or less. The rise time tr of the output is defined as the time taken for the output to rise from 10% ^lo to 90% ^90 of the maximum value. 34. 82) RC and also the cut-off frequency/o = j ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ clearly related by / . 83) It is generally considered that a pulse length ^d of about three times the rise time t^ is required to transmit a pulse without undue distortion.

3 A summary of the relationships between alternating voltages and currents in ideal components Applied signal v=Ksmco/ / = /sinco^ Resulting signal R I— — smco/ R (DL i^/sinco? coL/sinfco/ + - ) V= L C —-sm c o / - V 2/ coCKsm co? + V 27 ——sinfco/--) Signals and signal processing / = -l^sincof H -}Ls\n((dt+^) 31 /=a)CVsin(cof-^) CO/. (a) (b) (c) Fig. 16 An illustration of the voltage and current waveforms in the three ideal components. i'^L i'c VR vc (b) (a) Fig. 16: (a) the current phasors using the voltage across the component as the reference; (b) the voltage phasors using the current through the component as the reference.

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