Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

Various mixtures of commercially to be had applied sciences may possibly tremendously decrease gasoline intake in passenger automobiles, sport-utility autos, minivans, and different light-duty cars with out compromising car functionality or safeguard. Assessment of applied sciences for making improvements to gentle accountability automobile gasoline Economy estimates the capability gasoline rate reductions and prices to shoppers of accessible expertise mixtures for 3 different types of engines: spark-ignition gas, compression-ignition diesel, and hybrid.

in keeping with its estimates, adopting the whole blend of more desirable applied sciences in medium and massive vehicles and pickup vans with spark-ignition engines might decrease gasoline intake through 29 percentage at an extra expense of $2,200 to the patron. changing spark-ignition engines with diesel engines and elements might yield gas discounts of approximately 37 percentage at an further fee of roughly $5,900 in step with automobile, and exchanging spark-ignition engines with hybrid engines and elements would cut back gasoline intake by way of forty three percentage at a rise of $6,000 according to vehicle.

The ebook makes a speciality of gas consumption--the volume of gas ate up in a given riding distance--because power discount rates are without delay on the topic of the quantity of gas used. against this, gas financial system measures how a long way a motor vehicle will commute with a gallon of gasoline. simply because gas intake info point out cash kept on gas purchases and mark downs in carbon dioxide emissions, the publication reveals that motor vehicle stickers should still supply shoppers with gasoline intake information as well as gas economic climate information.

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DOT/NHTSA (2009, p. 188) also applies time-based or year-over-year learning by doing to widely available, high-­ volume, mature technologies. Either time-based or volumebased learning, but not both, is applied to a particular technology. Time-based learning is applied at the rate of 3 percent per year in the second and all subsequent years of a technology’s application. The use of learning curves poses a dilemma. On the one hand, there is no rigorous method for determining how much Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

For each of the EPA driving schedules, Sovran and Blaser (2006) calculated tractive energy for a large number of vehicles covering a broad range of parameter sets (r0, CD, A, M) representing the spectrum of current vehicles. 2) where S is the total distance traveled in a driving schedule, and α, β, and γ are specific but different constants for the UDDS and HWFET schedules. Sovran and Blaser (2006) also identified that a combination of five UDDS and three HWFET schedules very closely reproduces the EPA combined fuel consumption of 55 percent UDDS plus 45 percent HWFET, and provided its values of α, β, and γ.

4) Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of brake power output to the energy rate into the system (the mass flow rate of fuel times its energy density). ηb = ηi − Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 5) Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles 21 FUNDAMENTALS OF FUEL CONSUMPTION The brake thermal efficiency is ηb, while ηi is the indicated thermal efficiency, and Hf is the lower heating value of the fuel. This equation provides the means for relating pumping losses, engine friction, and auxiliary load to the overall engine efficiency.

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