Biomarkers for Geologists: a practical guide to the by Douglas Waples, Tsutomu Machihara

By Douglas Waples, Tsutomu Machihara

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Extra resources for Biomarkers for Geologists: a practical guide to the application of steranes and triterpanes in petroleum geology (AAPG Methods in Exploration 9)

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Figure 32 shows the decrease in moretane/hopane ratios from the very-immature sample at the top to the moremature sample at the bottom. 06 in a series of mature crude oils. Cornford et al. 01 in the North Sea. 2 being common) than do older samples, which are Biomarkers for Geologists 29 Table 3. Identities of triterpanes in the m/z 191 mass chromatograms in most of the illustrations in this book. 1. He suggested that the short time available for maturation in Tertiary samples may play a role in controlling moretane/hopane ratios.

Shaded areas represent approximate range for onset of oil generation. From Ekweozor and Udo (1988); reprinted with permission of Pergamon Press PLC. 7 1— ui 9 x oc —— to O "~_/C" . / ^ y>- 2400- D u. v 1 u. \v. < P -i i- I BRENT GR J 3100- < m I Oo\ 2 u. 1 _ • " - " - " «!? 2300 - 2600- 1• 2900- I 2200 - Q U. GR. •S .. , o 1 RAUPNE M 2500- 5 u. GR. 6 _-_-_-_-! UNDSEN RTON FM O . 3 i I'i'l'i'" IIIIII DEPTH ( m ) r ; :::::| : : : : 3300 • • MEASURED VALUES OCALCULATED VALUES & Figure 38—Plots of measured (dark circles) and calculated (open circles) vitrinite-reflectance values (left) and sterane epimerization (right; expressed as 20S/[20R+20S]) in the 30/6-5 well, Oseberg area, offshore Norway.

By modeling both Ro changes and sterane epimerization, one can constrain the burial and thermal history of the section more tightly than by modeling Ro alone. From Dahl et al. (1987); reprinted with permission of Graham and Trotman Limited. of each measurement and the maturity range within which each biomarker transformation occurs, but also the weaknesses associated with biomarker maturities in general. One problem is that biomarker maturities may not be universally valid, because the relative roles of time and temperature can vary among the various bio- marker transformations (Mackenzie, 1984).

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