By Malcolm Dando
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Gulf battle and wellbeing and fitness, quantity 2, is the second one in a chain of congressionally-mandated reports by way of the Institute of medication that gives a complete evaluate of the on hand clinical literature on capability healthiness results of publicity to convinced organic, chemical, and environmental brokers linked to the Gulf battle.
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Extra resources for Bioterror and Biowarfare: A Beginner's Guide (Beginner's Guides)
Ishii’s successor Kitano preferred to concentrate on laboratory killings. One further attempt to use biological weapons could have been made late in the war when US authorities were concerned that biological agents could have been one of the payloads used by the Japanese in their air balloon attacks on the United States. 7 In winter a traverse was possible in about three days by riding the balloons on the jet stream at around ten thousand metres. Some 9300 balloon bombs were launched in the winter months of 1944–5.
The last were destroyed in 1972. Production of the anthrax spores was as simple as the distribution. At first, enamelled iron trays of about 15 × 10 × 2 inches containing solid agar-based medium were seeded with spores and the subsequent growth was collected with a hand-held suction device. The resulting mixture was milled with glass beads and filtered to give a suspension concentrate. Subsequently, fifty-litre milk churns set in a hot room and subject to periodic stirring were used. Later still, heating elements were put into the churns and agitation was achieved through an air-sparger.
We can therefore use this declaration1 as the basis for a description of the American programme. In 1977 the United States also produced a detailed, two-volume account, US Army Activities in the US Biological Warfare Programs,2 which we can use to supplement the CBM declaration. The US CBM declaration divides its history of the offensive programme into a series of time periods: 1941–6 (during the Second World War); 1946–9; 1950–3; 1954–8; 1959–62; 1963–8; and 1969–72. Volume 1 of the history of the US Army’s activities helpfully provides summary title headings for its account of the postwar periods: 1946–9 1950–3 Research and planning years after World War II Expansion of the BW programme during the Korean War 1954–8 Cold war years – reorganization of weapons and defence programmes 1959–62 The limited war period – expanded research, development, testing and operational readiness 1963–8 Adaptation of the BW programme to counter insurgencies – the Vietnam War years 1969–72 Disarmament and phase-down.