By Frances Cogan
More than 5 thousand American civilian males, girls, and kids residing within the Philippines in the course of international battle II have been restrained to internment camps following Japan's overdue December 1941 victories in Manila. Captured tells the tale of everyday life in 5 diverse camps―the crowded housing, mounting familial and foreign tensions, heavy hard work, and more and more critical malnourishment that made the internees' rescue a race with hunger. Frances B. Cogan explores the occasions at the back of this approximately four-year captivity, explaining how and why this little-known internment happened. an intensive old account, the publication addresses a number of debatable concerns concerning the internment, together with jap intentions towards their prisoners and the U.S. nation Department's position in permitting the presence of yankee civilians within the Philippines in the course of wartime.
Supported by way of diaries, memoirs, battle crimes transcripts, jap squaddies' money owed, clinical information, and lots of different assets, Captured offers a close and relocating chronicle of the internees' efforts to outlive. Cogan compares dwelling stipulations in the internment camps with existence in POW camps and with the dwelling stipulations of eastern squaddies past due within the conflict. An afterword discusses the reports of internment survivors after the struggle, combining scientific and criminal data with own anecdotes to create a testomony to the millions of american citizens whose captivity haunted them lengthy after the struggle ended.
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Additional resources for Captured: The Japanese Internment of American Civilians in the Philippines, 1941-1945
Nash records her struggle with her apprehensions; unlike her friends, she believed that Japan might very well attack, and there was a good chance it would survive the effort. She did not fit well with her more optimistic and jingoistic comrades who didn't want to admit to such a possibility: I was in the minority; almost an outcast in the conversations. I had a gut feeling, without any facts, figures, geographical knowledge to back it up. I just felt that war was coming; that the islands were defenseless.
They did not, however, want to alarm their friends and family back home —especially because the official news seemed relatively good. After all, MacArthur kept providing bulletins for broadcast telling of huge Japanese losses thanks to the preparedness of his troops (Long, 118; Schaller, 56). Buoyed by a certain optimism, then, Nixon and her friends, now lodged in the Orientale Hotel inside Manila s walled city, cabled friends and family this soon-to-be ironic statement: "DELAYED, MANILA" (Nixon, 4).
Long before plastic credit cards, transactions were handled by merely signing the chit. Any foreigner had instant credit and only a few abused the privilege. We sublet a house complete with cook, houseboy, lavandera and gardener. . The house was on about two acres of beautiful lawn and gardens with huge mango trees. (Magnuson, 29) The young Magnusons discovered that their $185 a month salary was comfortable but did not cover quite such high living; they abandoned chits and 13 14 Captured moved into a much smaller house — one actually located in the garden of their first house (Magnuson, 30).