By Krueger A.
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Additional info for Carbon Materials and Nanotechnology
Some products of low crystallinity exhibit a turbostratic structure of the graphene sheets. The higher the temperature during the decomposition of the primary material, the bigger domains of graphitic order are obtained, and the products’ properties approximate those of original graphite. The individual products and the ways of their production are presented below. Coke The annual production is in the range of hundreds of megatons as big amounts of this energy source are required to feed blast furnaces and for heating.
35 36 2 Fullerenes – Cages Made from Carbon The ﬁrst description of fullerenes containing one or more atoms within the cage followed soon after detection of the fundamental structure. These so-called endohedral fullerenes played a crucial part in the isolation of higher fullerenes. 1 Nomenclature Before turning toward the structural features of fullerenes, it is necessary to ﬁnd a convention allowing for their unambiguous description in a simple and conceivable way. 0 13,18 . 0 . 042,46]hexaconta-1,3,5(10),6,8,11,13(18),14,16,19,21,23,25,27,29(45), 30,32(44),33,35(43),36,38(54),39(51),40(48),41,46,49,52,55,57,59-triacontaene.
This allows for the omission of any information on the interconnectivity of rings, provided the symmetry of the object is included in its name. A fullerene’s essential characteristic is the number of carbon atoms contained, so this ﬁgure must be found at a prominent position in the name. Finally, information on the cage’s constituent rings is required, which are ﬁve- and sixmembered in the majority of cases. With these data (number of C-atoms, symmetry and kind of rings), any fullerene can be described sufﬁciently.