By Elizabeth L. Anderson (auth.), Curtis C. Travis (eds.)
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Pp. 59-93, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 2. Current Views of the Biology of Cancer 31 Guernsey, D. , Thyroid hormone modulation of X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation, Nature 288:591-592. Hart, I. , and Fidler, I. , 1980, Cancer mvasion and metastasis, Q. Rev. Bioi. 55:121-142. Hart, R. , 1981, Evolution and longevity-assurance processes, Naturwissenschaften 68:552-557. Hart, R. , Setlow, R. , and Woodhead, A. , 1977, Evidence that pyrimidine dimers in DNA can give rise to tumors, Proc.
Although there are differences, many of the processes of repair in mammalian cells are similar to those described in bacteria and it is assumed that these systems have been conserved during the course of evolution. It has been speculated that the primary role of these systems in evolution was to protect the genetic infonnation of the species from both endogenous and naturally-occurring exogenous DNA damaging agents, long enough for the organism to replicate (Hart and Turturro, 1981; Turturro and Hart, 1984).
Gary Flamm and Robert J. C. 20204. 37 38 II. The Use of Scientific Data in Risk Assessment however, that there have been and that there would be specific situations where short-term tests would prove invaluable in determining a final outcome. In this chapter, an attempt is made to explore some of these situations, not in great depth or in detail, but only to provide some sense of the different ways in which shortterm tests can be helpful. Before proceeding with the examples, the short-term tests that have been used most and are likely to prove most useful in the future are briefly described.