Cardiovascular Physiology (10th Edition) (Mosby's Physiology by Achilles J. Pappano, Withrow Gil Wier

By Achilles J. Pappano, Withrow Gil Wier

Cardiovascular body structure promises an excellent realizing of the way the cardiovascular method capabilities in either healthiness and ailment. excellent on your systems-based curriculum, this identify within the Mosby body structure Monograph sequence explains how the most recent options practice to real-life scientific situations:

- Get transparent, exact, and up to the moment insurance of the body structure of the cardiovascular system.
- grasp the fabric simply with goals at the beginning of every bankruptcy; self-study questions, summaries, and keywords and ideas; and a multiple-choice assessment examination to aid prep for USMLEs.
- take hold of the most recent thoughts in vascular, molecular, and mobile biology as they follow to cardiovascular functionality, due to molecular commentaries in each one chapter.
- observe info to medical occasions by way of scientific commentaries and highlighted scientific vignettes throughout.

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Extra info for Cardiovascular Physiology (10th Edition) (Mosby's Physiology Monograph)

Sample text

Firing of ventricular ectopic cells that have the same electrophysiological ­characteristics as SA node cells. d firing of automatic cells (Purkinje fibers) in the specialized conduction system of the ventricles. excitation of ventricular cells by the ­rhythmic activity in the autonomic ­neurons that innervate the heart. 4. While the heart was being paced, the ­cardiologist discontinued ventricular pacing periodically to test the patient’s cardiac status. overdrive suppression of the automatic cells in the ventricles.

When the basic cycle length at which the epicardial fibers are stimulated is increased from 300 to 2000 ms, phase 1 becomes more pronounced and the action potential duration is increased substantially. The same increase in basic cycle length has no effect on the early portion of the plateau in endocardial fibers, and it has a smaller effect on the action potential duration than it does in epicardial fibers (see Figure 2-13). Genesis of the Plateau During the plateau (phase 2) of the action potential, Ca++ enters the cell through calcium channels that activate and inactivate much more slowly than do the fast Na+ channels.

Increased sympathetic nervous activity, through the release of norepinephrine, raises the heart rate principally by increasing the slope of the pacemaker potential (slope 1 in Figure 3-3A). This mechanism of increasing heart rate operates during physical exertion, anxiety, and certain illnesses, such as febrile infectious diseases. Increased vagal activity, through the release of acetylcholine, diminishes the heart rate by hyperpolarizing the pacemaker cell membrane (slope 4 in Figure 3-3B) and by reducing the slope of the pacemaker potential (slope 2 in Figure 3-3A).

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