By Emil Brujan
Non-Newtonian houses on bubble dynamics and cavitation are essentially varied from these of Newtonian fluids. the main major influence arises from the dramatic bring up in viscosity of polymer options in an extensional circulate, comparable to that generated a couple of round bubble in the course of its progress or cave in part. moreover, many organic fluids, comparable to blood, synovial fluid, and saliva, have non-Newtonian houses and will reveal major viscoelastic behaviour. This monograph elucidates basic facets of bubble dynamics and cavitation in non-Newtonian fluids and applies them to the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering. additionally it offers many examples from the method industries. the sector is strongly interdisciplinary and the varied disciplines contain have and should proceed to miss and reinvent every one others’ paintings. This e-book is helping researchers to imagine intuitively concerning the assorted physics of those platforms, to aim to bridge a number of the groups concerned, and to show the curiosity, splendor, and diversity of actual phenomena that show up themselves at the micrometer and microsecond scales.
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Additional info for Cavitation in Non-Newtonian Fluids: With Biomedical and Bioengineering Applications
Plasma represents about 55% of the total blood volume. It is composed of mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (6–8%), glucose, lipids, mineral ions, hormones, and carbon dioxide. Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1,025 kg/m3 (Lentner 1979). The cells are red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) of several types, and plateles. 5 μm. The cells consist of a highly flexible membrane, filled with a concentrated haemoglobin solution. The membrane, consisting of a lipid bilayer and a cytoskeleton (a network of protein molecules), exhibits viscoelastic properties.
The macromolecule is represented by two beads joined by a massless rod, with the solvent presumed to only interact at the beads. 69) where the values of m1 and m2 depend on the details of the model, as listed by Ferry (1980). 70) where c is the polymer concentration. The BKBZ Model The KBKZ model is an integral type constitutive equation proposed by Kaye (1962) and Bernstein et al. (1963). 5 for uniaxial extension, m = 0 for planar extension, m = 1 for biaxial extension, and ς is the extension ratio.
The smaller viscosity of the synovial fluid impairs its lubricant and shock absorbing properties leading finally to deteriorated joint movement (Soltés et al. 2006). Dynamic tests on the rheological properties of synovial fluid were conducted by Balazs and his co-workers using both healthy and arthritic human synovial fluids (Balazs 1968; Gibbs et al. 1968). They found that the synovial fluids of both healthy young and old subjects when exposed to shear stress at low frequencies behave as viscous fluids, but when the frequency increases, the fluids become more and more elastic.