By Col. Charles P. Neimeyer, Center Of Military History (U.S. Army)
The Chesapeake crusade, 1813–1814, examines a pivotal sequence of army operations in the course of the struggle of 1812, a lot of which stay unknown to so much american citizens. such a lot comprehend of the embarrassment that the British military triggered whilst it entered Washington, D.C., to burn the Capitol, the president's mansion, and different govt structures. Many also are conscious that in a conflict 3 weeks later a garrison flag of a U.S. military publish encouraged the writing of a patriotic track that finally grew to become our nationwide anthem. as well as the legacy of the "Star Spangled Banner," the Chesapeake crusade holds some distance larger ancient and army importance. As Britain targeted its army and naval may well opposed to Napoleon in Europe, it could actually dedicate few forces to protect its possessions in North the US, in what was once thought of a hard sideshow. The crusade began as a strategic attempt to disrupt American trade and divert U.S. forces, together with many of the ordinary military, from endured incursions into the higher and decrease Canadian provinces. With Napoleon's exile to Elba in 1814, the British may well now pay attention to the battle in the USA and dispatched extra ships and males. After executing a profitable raid on Washington, British leaders grew to become their awareness at the extra militarily very important and wealthy port urban of Baltimore. regardless of a mixed land and sea assault, the operation failed. including information that American forces had additionally defeated a British invasion alongside the Lake Champlain hall at Plattsburgh, manhattan, the victory at Baltimore gave U.S. peace commissioners in Ghent, Belgium, a far enhanced place from which to barter the phrases of the treaty that ended the warfare.
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Extra resources for Chesapeake Campaign, 1813-1814
Together with Major Armistead’s mixed garrison of regular and militia artillery, Sea Fencibles, and flotillamen, about one thousand troops manned the harbor’s principal defensive post. Commodore Rodgers posted some elements of his naval contingent at the Lazaretto Point and Ferry Branch defenses. The rest, mostly from USS Guerriere, took position on Hampstead Hill, with sailors manning the fifteen guns in the five-battery positions closest to the river, and marines behind the breastworks covering the most likely avenue of enemy advance to that sector.
Neimeyer, a retired Marine Corps officer, is the director of Marine Corps History and the Gray Research Center at the Marine Corps University, Quantico, Virginia. D. in history from Georgetown University. His publications include America Goes to War: A Social History of the Continental Army (1996), The Revolutionary War (2007), and On the Corps: USMC Wisdom from the Pages of Leatherneck, Marine Corps Gazette, and Proceedings (2008). •••• 58 •••• ••• Further Readings Eshelman, Ralph E. A Travel Guide to the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake: Eighteen Tours in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.
Seeing the 5th Maryland pressed on three sides, Winder ordered a withdrawal. Thornton’s redcoats then resumed their advance, with Brooke’s 4th and 44th Foot threatening the left and right flanks, respectively, of what remained of Stansbury’s line. Unnerved by the rocket fire, many of Schutz’s and Ragan’s men were unable to resist further. They managed two volleys and then began to retire. Although the withdrawal started in good order, it soon became a rout. Colonel Ragan attempted to rally his troops, but was injured, thrown from his horse, and taken prisoner.