Climate Change and the Oceans: Gauging the Legal and Policy by Robin Warner, Clive Schofield

By Robin Warner, Clive Schofield

Climate switch and the Oceans investigates the consequences of weather swap at the ocean surroundings and its implications for maritime actions, either globally and in the Asia Pacific region.

This exact paintings attracts jointly educated opinion from a number disciplines to envision the affects of weather switch on marine and coastal components and evaluation felony and coverage responses to the quickly altering ocean atmosphere. matters together with the results on fisheries and marine biodiversity within the Asia Pacific sector, maritime safeguard, international transport, marine jurisdiction and marine geo-engineering also are explored.

Examining the a number of affects of weather swap at the oceans and ocean dependent suggestions to mitigate the antagonistic affects of weather swap, this thought-provoking booklet will end up necessary to teachers, researchers and scholars within the fields of legislation, setting, ecology and political technological know-how. Oceans and marine environmental policymakers also will locate this to be a necessary resource.

Contributors: A. Arsana, M. Haward, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, S. Kaye, R. Kenchington, L. Kirkendale, S. Palassis, C. Rahman, R. Rayfuse, A. Rubio, C. Schofield, R. Warner, percent. Winberg

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Additional info for Climate Change and the Oceans: Gauging the Legal and Policy Currents in the Asia Pacific and Beyond

Sample text

These events were first reported in the scientific literature in the early 1980s, and do not appear to have been a regular or natural response by coral reef ecosystems prior to that date. Throughout the 1980s, it also became clear that mass coral bleaching was linked to unusual ‘doldrum’ conditions, in which ocean temperatures exceeded long-term maxima for short periods (Glynn 1988). The association of elevated sea temperature with mass coral bleaching was confirmed in experimental studies, which show that elevating temperatures in a similar fashion would cause corals to lose their Symbiodinium symbionts (Hoegh-Guldberg and Smith 1989).

The clockwise North Pacific Gyre is driven westward by the trade winds, turning north near the Philippines to become the Kuroshio current and flowing towards the Arctic Circle before pushing down the West Coast of the United States. In the southern hemisphere, the south equatorial current flows from South America towards the southern coast of Papua New Guinea before moving southward down the east coast of Australia towards Antarctica and eventually flowing eastward towards South America once again.

In this regard, experimental studies consistently show a reduction in the ability of many key coral species and other important calcifiers to precipitate their calcium carbonate skeletons. A long-term study of coral growth over the past four centuries on the Great Barrier Reef (De’ath et al. 2009) and in Thailand (Tanzil et al. 2009) has revealed that corals have been calcifying 15 per cent lower since 1990 and that previous decreases of this magnitude are not seen anywhere else in the coral records studied.

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