By William J. Hardcastle, Nigel Hewlett
Coarticulation capacity the overlapping gestures that take place throughout the pronunciation of any series of speech sounds. This subject within the technological know-how of phonetics presents a problem to speech construction conception in addition to to varied tasks within the box of speech know-how, together with that of establishing a average sounding speech synthesizer. The eighteen chapters during this publication disguise the experimental thoughts used for investigating the phenomenon, the experimental findings thus far, and the theoretical history.
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Extra info for Coarticulation: Theory, Data and Techniques (Cambridge Studies in Speech Science and Communication)
Large locus–nucleus distances2). The direction of the formant movement and its dependence on the consonant–vowel distance clearly indicated that vowel reduction is the result of consonant-to-vowel coarticulation. Lindblom’s account of the relation between target undershoot and duration was that undershoot is the automatic response of the motor system to an increase in rate of motor commands. The commands are invariable but when Coarticulation models in recent speech production theories 35 they are issued at short temporal intervals, the articulators do not have suﬃcient time to complete the response before the next signal arrives and thus have to respond to diﬀerent commands simultaneously.
See text for expansion. 2 The model of tongue body coarticulation in the production of retroﬂex alveolars in the contexts of vowels /i/ and /o/ (ﬁlled circles). The black area contains all the tongue body contours compatible with the apical closure. The V-toC and C-to-V trajectories reﬂect the minimum displacement constraints. The amount of coarticulatory eﬀects are represented by the diﬀerences between tongue body conﬁgurations in the two contexts (from Lindblom 1983). be seen that displacement is positively related to duration but can increase or decrease as a function of the amount of input force (top panel) or system stiﬀness (bottom panel).
Failing to ﬁnd stable articulatory positions, Menzerath and de Lacerda proposed that articulation is governed by two major principles, ‘Koartikulation’ and ‘Steuerung’. ‘Koartikulation’ (or ‘Synkinese’) indicates that articulators already prepare for following sounds during the production of a preceding segment. Moreover, as proposed afterwards, it was hypothesized that this preparatory activity begins as early as possible. The evidence for the concept of coarticulation was primarily based upon the observation that the articulatory movements for the vowel in tokens such as /ma/ or /pu/ began at the same time as the movements for the initial consonant.