Conflicts of Empires: Spain, the Low Countries and the by Jonathan Israel

By Jonathan Israel

The interval among the past due 16th and the early eighteenth centuries used to be one among large, and finally decisive, shifts within the stability of political, army and financial energy in either Europe and the broader international. Spain's overwhelming dominance within the 1580s appeared unassailable, but by means of the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 its greatness were eclipsed, leaving supremacy to Britain, France and, within the advertisement sphere, the Dutch. In those essays (five of that are formerly unpublished) Jonathan Israel argues that Spain's efforts to take care of her hegemony persisted to be focused at the Low international locations. One usually are not conveniently suppose that Spain's order of priorities was once misconceived: every now and then she looked to be on the subject of succeeding. either France and Britain have been deeply riven by means of spiritual, political and social divisions in the course of a wide a part of the 17th century. whereas it really is actual that once Spain's ultimate defeat, on the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), French preponderance inside of, and British supremacy open air, Europe appeared more and more possible, the overthrow of James II in 1688 may good were the prelude to political chaos and civil conflict in Britain. whereas long term financial and social developments performed a wide half in shaping the result of occasions, it's also real that the influence of personalities and temporary contingencies may usually be decisive.

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114-15. 34 Du Faing, 'Voyage', p. 536. 35 On all these occasions, artists were employed to devise elaborate allegories and representations, not infrequently showing the Seventeen Provinces being reunited, and brought to repose, by the Archdukes. There were processions, music and banquets, the proceedings at Valenciennes again being presided over by the duke of Aerschot, this time in his capacity as governor of Hainault. When it came to decision-making at the court of the Archdukes, it may have been virtually only the Spaniards who mattered; but when it was a question of projecting the image and the requirements of the court and communicating with the provinces, there was never any doubt that it was the nobles of the south Netherlands who led.

I. Israel, The Dutch Republic and the Hispanic World, 1606-1661 (Oxford, 1982), pp. 98-100, 170-1; idem, Empires and Entrepots, pp. 170-1, 180-1. 55 Zuniga, 'Relation de las cosas de Flandes', fos 239v-40. 56 Although he allocated far more space to the nobles, Zuniga also had something to say about the leading non-noble Netherlanders at the archducal court. In particular, Jean Richardot was impossible to ignore. He had joined the Revolt of 1576 and subsequently been somewhat slow to abandon the rebels and submit to Don Juan, but he had been extensively employed by Parma and eventually regained Philip II's trust, and was later a principal member of the archducal and Spanish delegation which negotiated the Twelve Years' Truce with the Dutch, during the years 1607-9.

2035. consulta, Madrid, 30 July 1621, fo. 3, 'Voto del duque del Infantado. , fo. 9, 'Voto del Conde de Benavente'. 25 The marriage itself was celebrated at Ferrara, on 15 November 1598, in the presence of Pope Clement VIII but with Isabella represented by a proxy, the main pageantry and ceremonial surrounding the marriage taking place during the spring of 1599 at the Spanish court, where quite a few leading south Netherlands nobles, including the counts of Egmont, Solre and Berlaymont were in attendance.

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