By H. Stephan
Along different elements, cultural values and identities aid to give an explanation for various regulatory frameworks for genetically converted organisms. This booklet makes use of insights from environmental historical past and sociology to light up the cultural politics of rules within the US and the european, with specific consciousness to public opinion and anti-GMO activism.
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2001). The arrival of ‘Monsanto’s soy’ in Europe undermined Danes’ trust in their policy-makers’ assurances and the country’s ability to remain GM-free in the context of the European Single Market. In the Eurobarometer 1996, public acceptance of agbiotech in Denmark once again ranked among the lowest recorded in the whole of Europe (Bauer et al. 1997). The government’s response to the upsurge in scepticism was swift and congruent with the Danish political context. Danish politicians became the public’s advocates in Brussels, making the case for broader type of risk assessment that took into account complex ecological systems, ethical objections, and compatibility with goals such as sustainable agriculture.
The novel genetic technique that was employed did not require the use of viruses or bacteria and, consequently, USDA declared that the plant did not fall within its remit. The GM bluegrass, as well as a string of GM innovations in the pipeline, would therefore remain unregulated and could freely enter the market (Nature 2011). The combination of scientiﬁc uncertainty and inadequate regulatory coverage has led to increasingly loud calls for regulatory reform. According to Brown (2011), a framework for a new, more comprehensive biotechnology law ‘has been sitting quietly on the shelf’ for over a decade.
Once regulations are in place or reforms have become embedded, historical institutionalists trace the means by which prevailing regulations become ‘locked in’ or self-reinforcing. It is assumed that policy reversal quickly becomes too costly because bureaucratic actors, interest groups, and the wider public adapt to and become invested in the new regulatory environment (Sheingate 2006; Pollack and Shaffer 2009: 79). The agbiotech industry in the US would thus pour money into research and commercialisation, while actors across the EU food chain would hesitate or focus on conventional and organic agriculture.