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Indb 22 7/31/14 4:09 PM Data collection techniques 23 Validation studies were also performed using a Daimler-Benz simulator in Berlin. An experiment conducted by Riemersma et al. (1990) indicated drivers in the simulator adjusted their speed more in reaction to speedreducing measures than in real life. The study also concluded that the driving simulator possessed relative validity. Some studies utilized the fixed base Leeds Advanced Driving Simulator (LADS). Carsten et al. (1997) investigated the speeds and lateral positions of vehicles at 21 locations.
Camera position: A camera should ideally be mounted directly above a roadway. Slanted views create problems such as double counting and occlusions. • Inclement weather leads to reduced visibility. Yu (2009) reported that false vehicle detections caused by shadows cast by vehicles in adjacent lanes led to problems especially during cloudless weather with strong sunshine. The precision of classification is also susceptible to rainfall, wind gales, and glare from bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight during days and artificial light from car headlights at night.
From a practical view, it is often difficult to find suitable high vantage points for positioning cameras. The second drawback is that data postprocessing is very difficult and resource-intensive unless automated image processing methods can be used and they are labor-intensive. The third drawback is the noise in the resulting trajectories. Indeed, (x,y) position measurements result from a complicated process of identifying moving objects on a set of successive images and the result may exhibit lower than expected precision.