By M. Vainberg
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Above right (arrow) is an rER section cut vertical to the membrane plane. 5 j1m. (After Bergfeld) formed on the complexes are transported immediately after formation of the peptide bonds (cotranslational) through the membrane into the lumen of the ER (see Fig. 2). The ability to synthesise proteins on membranes is restricted to particular areas of the ER (the rough ER, in contrast to the smooth ER, which is not occupied by polysomes). Synthesis of protein also occurs in cytoplasm on "free" polysomes.
The membrane of the free Golgi vesicle has not been drawn in, as it cannot be distinguished clearly from the stained vesicle contents. However, this membrane is always present, as can be seen in pictures with non-stained vesicle contents. N Daughter nuclei; CP cell plate; M mitochondrion; W cell wall; PL plasma membrane; D dictyosome; Rib ribosomes; GV Golgi vesicle; ER endoplasmic reticulum; ni not identified. (After Sievers 1965) Cytoskeleton In common with single-celled organisms and animals, plant cells contain a web of cortical microtubules in the outer regions of the cytoplasm (ectoner envelope membrane that the peroxisome membrane does not belong to the endomembrane system of the cell, but is a membrane sui generis.
Here we only summarise further essential differences between the embryonic and mature cell. In the cytoplasm of the mature cell the density of ribosomes, and thereby also protein synthesis, is clearly reduced. The nucleus is smaller, no longer spherical, but rather lens-shaped and less active. Nucleoli, the site of ribosome formation, also shrink accordingly. Plastids show the most obvious changes. From the small proplastids ( < 1 j1m) the large chloroplasts (ca. 5 j1m) develop; these contain the photosynthetic apparatus of the cell (Fig.