Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids (Electrical by Benoît Robyns, Bruno François, Gauthier Delille , Christophe

By Benoît Robyns, Bruno François, Gauthier Delille , Christophe Saudemont

This booklet bargains with the administration and valuation of strength garage in electrical energy grids, highlighting the curiosity of garage platforms in grid functions and constructing administration methodologies according to synthetic intelligence tools.  The authors spotlight the significance of storing electricity, within the context of sustainable improvement, in "smart grids", and talk about a number of providers that storing electricity can bring.  Methodological instruments are supplied to construct an strength administration procedure garage following a standard technique. those instruments are in response to causal formalisms, synthetic intelligence and particular optimization suggestions and are awarded in the course of the ebook in reference to concrete case experiences.

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Storage technologies Techniques used for storing energy in fixed applications such as those concerning the production and distribution of electrical energy will be briefly described in this chapter. Storage technologies adapted for onboard systems are obviously more limited for reasons of volume and weight. The following techniques enable the long-term storage of electrical energy for a period of more than 10 min and up to several months: – hydraulic pumping and gravity-flow storage, used on a large scale in electrical grids; 18 Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids – thermal storage in the form of sensitive heat (with no change of state) or latent heat (with a change of state); – storage in the form of pressure energy by means of compressed air; – electrochemical accumulator cell batteries available in various types; – hydrogen storage obtained via electrolysis and the use of a fuel cell to recover the electricity.

This air is cooled by passing through a heat exchanger and then stored in extremely deep underground caverns. During discharge (the expansion phase), the air is reheated in a combustion chamber using additional natural gas, to be exploited in a machine similar to a gas turbine, which drives the generator. Expected efficiencies from these types of units are between 48 and 50%. 22 kWh of natural gas in the combustion chamber. Conventional CAES can be seen as a way of doing the work of compression with cheap energy, coming from low consumption 34 Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids periods, instead of obtaining it instantaneously through gas combustion.

Electrolyte circulation batteries Circulation batteries (flow batteries) make it possible to circumvent the limitations of classic electrochemical accumulators, in which electrochemical reactions create solid compounds that are stored directly on the electrodes where they are formed. The mass that can be accumulated locally is, therefore, necessarily limited, which in turn limits capacity. 15 [ROB 05a] shows, in electrolyte circulation batteries the chemical compounds responsible for energy storage are liquid, in solution in the electrolyte, and are pumped between the tanks and the electrochemical converter proper (called the stack).

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