By Mahmoud Massoud

Thermofluids, whereas a comparatively glossy time period, is utilized to the well-established box of thermal sciences, that is produced from a number of intertwined disciplines. therefore mass, momentum, and warmth move represent the basics of th- mofluids. This ebook discusses thermofluids within the context of thermodynamics, unmarried- and two-phase circulate, in addition to warmth move linked to unmarried- and two-phase flows. normally, the sector of thermal sciences is taught in univer- ties by means of requiring scholars to review engineering thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and warmth move, in that order. In graduate institution, those themes are mentioned at extra complicated degrees. in recent times, although, there were makes an attempt to in- grate those themes via a unified method. This method is sensible as thermal layout of extensively diverse structures starting from hair dryers to semicond- tor chips to jet engines to nuclear strength vegetation is predicated at the conservation eq- tions of mass, momentum, angular momentum, strength, and the second one legislation of thermodynamics. whereas integrating those issues has lately received reputation, it really is hardly ever a brand new process. for instance, chook, Stewart, and Lightfoot in delivery Phenomena, Rohsenow and Choi in warmth, Mass, and Momentum move, El- Wakil, in Nuclear warmth shipping, and Todreas and Kazimi in Nuclear structures have pursued the same process. those books, besides the fact that, were designed for complicated graduate point classes. extra lately, undergraduate books utilizing an - tegral method are showing.

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**Extra resources for Engineering Thermofluids: Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer**

**Example text**

Equilibrium is an important concept in thermodynamics. Systems in equilibrium do not experience any change with time. There are several types of equilibrium including thermal, mechanical, chemical, internal, and external. By thermal equilibrium we mean the temperature is the same throughout the system and is equal to the temperature of the surroundings, (which is everything external to the system). By mechanical equilibrium we mean that a system has no unbalanced force within it and the force it exerts on its boundary is balanced by an external force.

Internal energy (U) of a system is the total energy of the system minus the potential and the kinetic energies, U = E – (KE + PE). The internal energy represents the energy on the microscopic level. As described by Reynolds, it consists of such energies as nuclear and molecular binding energies, molecular rotation, translation, and vibration, intermolecular weak and strong energies, mass equivalent energy, and such other microscopic energies associated with the nuclear and electron spin. Enthalpy (H) of a system is defined as the summation of the internal energy (U) and pressure work (PV), as in H = U + PV.

Examples of intensive properties include temperature (T), pressure (P), density ( ρ = m/V), specific volume (v= V/m), specific enthalpy (h = H/m) and specific entropy (s = S/m). 1. The state of a substance is determined by two intensive properties. These could be pressure and temperature, pressure and specific internal energy, temperature and specific enthalpy, etc. 1. Examples of extensive and intensive properties Property Mass Volume Momentum Kinetic energy Potential energy Internal energy Total energy Enthalpy Entropy Extensive (Y) m V mV ½ mV2 mgZ U E H S Intensive (y) ρ v V ½ V2 gZ u e h s Critical state of a substance is a state beyond which a liquid-vapor transformation is not possible.