Exercise Physiology in Special Populations. Advances in by John P Buckley, BPE MSc PhD BASES Accr (Eds.)

By John P Buckley, BPE MSc PhD BASES Accr (Eds.)

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An adipocyte-derived cytokine (signalling protein). In mice, blood concentrations of resistin are elevated with obesity and the influence of resistin is antagonistic to that of insulin, i. e. increases in resistin concentration lead to reductions in glucose uptake into tissues. This may be due to a disruption of the insulin signalling mechanism within the cells (hence the name ‘resistin’, which means ‘resistance to insulin’). In humans, however, the evidence linking resistin to diabetes and obesity is less clear (Berggren et al 2005).

Provided that the energy expenditure of exercise is sufficient, the mode of exercise used should not matter. However, the most effective mode of exercise for expending energy is aerobic exercise and walking is one of the most popular activities for individuals wishing to lose weight. ) are as effective for weight loss as diet plus structured aerobic exercise (Andersen et al 1999). Diabetes How much physical activity is required to prevent type 2 diabetes? The four intervention studies conducted so far provide some guidance here.

E. 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity initially building up to 200 to 300 minutes per week later on. Such doses of exercise have been shown to be effective 39 40 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY IN SPECIAL POPULATIONS in improving insulin sensitivity and should therefore assist in preventing type 2 diabetes (Houmard et al 2004, McAuley et al 2002). The American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand on exercise and type 2 diabetes (Albright et al 2000) gives clear guidelines for the prescription of exercise in type 2 diabetics.

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