Fluidization, Solids Handling, and Processing: Industrial by Wen-Ching Yang

By Wen-Ching Yang

This quantity, Fluidization, Solids dealing with, and Processing, is the 1st of a chain of volumes on "Particle Technology". debris are vital items of chemical procedure industries spanning the fundamental and distinctiveness chemical substances, agricultural items, prescribed drugs, paints, dyestuffs and pigments, cement, ceramics, and digital fabrics. Solids dealing with and processing applied sciences are hence necessary to the operation and competitiveness of those industries. Fluidization expertise is hired not just in chemical creation, it is also utilized in coal gasification and combustion for energy iteration, mineral processing, nutrition processing, soil washing and different similar waste remedy, environmental remediation, and source restoration tactics. The FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) expertise ordinarily hired within the sleek petroleum refineries can be in line with fluidization ideas.

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E = 0 where i is the unit vector in the vertical direction, and the drag force between the fluid and the particle is represented by F. The terms Efand are the local average stress tensors associated with the fluid and particle phases, respectively. The proper formulation of the stress tensors is still a subject of controversy. The fluid-to-particle force term can be represented by a drag term proportional to the relative velocity between the two phases and a virtual mass term (Ca is the added mass coefficient), Ep Eq.

Model A" simulates the behavior of commercial bed A, model B" simulates a larger commercial bed B and so forth. Then by comparing models A', B" with C" we can determine the expected changes in operating characteristics when commercial bed A is replaced by larger beds B and C. Designing a model fluidized bed which simulates the hydrodynamics of a commercial bed requires accounting for all of the mechanical forces in the system. In some instances, convective heat transfer can also be scaled but, at present, proper scaling relationships for chemical reactions or hydromechanical effects, such as particle attrition or the rate of tube erosion, have not been established.

4 Flow Transition Hovmand and Davidson (1971) review Stewart' s criterion for the transition from bubbling to slug flow, Uo-Umf Eq. 35(gD)~ and show it gives good agreement with most experiments. Thus, a small diameter laboratory bed may exhibit behavior which is far different than a scaled up pilot plant. There is some data which suggests the bed depth to bed diameter may also influence the bubble to slug transition. 22 m in diameter. They found that the bed aspect ratio influenced the onset of slug formation.

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