Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals (Food Science Text by Rotimi E. Aluko

By Rotimi E. Aluko

"Functional foodstuff or medicinal nutrients is any clean or processed nutrition claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing estate past the elemental dietary functionality of offering foodstuff, even though there's no consensus on an actual definition of the term.

This is an rising box in nutrients technological know-how, during which such meals tend to be followed by means of well-being claims for advertising and marketing reasons, akin to a company's ‘cereal is an important resource of fiber. stories have proven that an elevated quantity of fiber in one's nutrition can lessen the chance of specific sorts of melanoma in individuals.’

Functional meals are often known as nutraceuticals, a portmanteau of food and pharmaceutical, and will contain meals that has been genetically converted. the overall classification comprises processed nutrition made up of practical meals materials, or fortified with health-promoting ingredients, like "vitamin-enriched" items, and likewise clean meals (e.g., vegetables) that experience particular claims hooked up. Fermented meals with reside cultures are usually additionally thought of to be useful meals with probiotic benefits."

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Longer trials (up to 16 weeks) resulted in up to 47% reduction in blood TG. • Lower lipoprotein cholesterol, though evidence is stronger in animal studies than in human clinical trials. However, there is increase in HDL cholesterol and lowering of total cholesterol content. • Anti-inflammatory effect, which leads to reduced platelet aggregation and inhibition of atherogenesis. Modulation of platelet aggregation is mediated through the eicosanoid pathway and is not as a result of direct effect of fatty acids on platelets.

It is well-known that flavonoids such as isoflavones are more efficiently absorbed from the intestinal lumen when presented in the aglycone rather than the intact glycoside. Intestinal FOS stimulates growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli that produce b-glycosidase, an enzyme that converts the poorly absorbed glycosides into the better absorbed free aglycones through hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds in flavonoids. b-glycosidase also converts daidzein (an isoflavone) to equol (a nonsteroidal estrogen), the isoform with a higher bone-preserving potential.

More importantly, lactulose must be present in the diet to stimulate calcium absorption since administration of lactulose alone after a 48-h period or up to 7 days prior to feeding of calcium diet had no effect. Removal of the rat colon did not negate the beneficial effects of lactulose, which indicates that the small intestine is the site of enhanced calcium absorption. In healthy human adults, absorption of calcium and magnesium was enhanced when coadministered with lactulose. A high concentration of digestion-resistant lactulose in the small intestine increases the amount of fluid within the lumen in order to maintain isotonicity.

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