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Extra resources for Global Institutions and Development: Framing the World? (RIPE Series in Global Political Economy)
Agricultural adjustment If all developed countries have begun as predominantly agricultural economies, they have ended as predominantly industrial, or at least, non-agricultural, ones. As industrialisation proceeds and labour moves steadily out of agriculture into industrial employment, the proportion of the nation’s output and employment provided by the agricultural sector is bound to decline. Even in those developed countries able to maintain a comparative advantage in agricultural products and to specialise in agricultural exports (such as the United States, Australia or New Zealand) the proportion of the labour force employed in agriculture is still small.
Anderson’s survey (Anderson 1994) of the available literature and empirical data clearly shows the East Asian countries, and gradually the other industrialising countries of Asia, pursuing the same shift from taxation and general exploitation to protection and subsidy of their agricultural sectors. If agriculture’s role in the economy has thus followed broadly the same pattern in East Asia as in earlier-industrialising countries in Europe and America, the exceptionally fast rate of industrial growth inJapan, Taiwan and Korea has however meant that the agricultural adjustment problem has appeared sooner and with greater force than in earlier, more gradual industrialisers.
Meanwhile, Richard,Jens and Hyung-Sim discovered all they ever wanted to know about East Asian agriculture. Penelope Francks, Leeds, July 1998 Conventions Personal names inJapanese, Korean and Chinese are presented in the East Asian manner, with family names first. Metric measurements are used. In particular, the East Asian measures of area, the cho, chongbo and chia, are treated as equivalent to one hectare (1 ha =100 ares), to which they are all almost exactly equal. Quantities are given in metric tonnes (mt).