By P. Ribéreau-Gayon, D. Dubourdieu, B. Donèche, A. Lonvaud
The "Microbiology" quantity of the hot revised and up to date Handbook of Enology specializes in the vinification method. It describes how yeasts paintings and the way they are often prompted to accomplish larger effects. It keeps to examine the metabolism of lactic acid bacterias and of acetic acid bacterias, and back, how can they be handled to prevent mess ups within the winemaking technique and the way to accomplish optimum effects. The final chapters within the ebook care for using sulfur-dioxide, the grape and its maturation strategy, harvest and pre-fermentation remedy, and the foundation of pink, white and speciality wine making.
The result's the last word textual content and reference at the technology and know-how of the vinification method: realizing and working with yeasts and bacterias eager about the transformation from grape to wine. A needs to for all severe scholars and practitioners occupied with winemaking.
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Extra info for Handbook of Enology, Vol. 1: The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications
Between this monograph and the previous classification (Lodder and Kregger-Van Rij, 1952), the designation and classification of yeasts had already changed profoundly. In this book, the last two classifications by Kregger-Van Rij (1984) and Barnett et al. (2000) are of interest. These contain even more significant changes in the delimitation of species and genus with respect to earlier systematics. According to the current classification, yeasts belonging to Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and imperfect fungi (Deuteromycetes) are divided into 81 genera, to which 590 species belong.
Due to the relatively limited number of yeast species significantly present on grapes and in wine, these phenotypic tests identify enological yeast species in certain genera without difficulty. Certain species can be identified by observing growing cells under the microscope. 19). Saccharomycodes ludwigii is characterized by much larger (10–20 µm) apiculated cells. 20). In modern taxonomy, this genus only contains the species Schizosacch. pombe. Finally, the budding of Candida stellata (formerly known as Torulopsis stellata) occurs in the shape of a star.
According to the same authors, the species S. bayanus was rarely found in wines. Although it possessed the same physiological fermentation and sugar assimilation characters as S. oviformis, its cells were more elongated, its fermentation was slower, and it had a particular behavior towards growth factors. The species S. uvarum was identified in wine by many authors. It differed from cerevisiae, oviformis and bayanus because it could ferment melibiose. In Lodder’s following edition (Lodder 1970), the number of species of the genus Saccharomyces increased from 30 to 41.