By Saeid Mokhatab, William A. Poe, John Y. Mak
Written through an internationally-recognized writer group of traditional fuel specialists, the 3rd version of Handbook of typical fuel Transmission and Processing is a different, well-documented, and accomplished paintings at the significant elements of normal fuel transmission and processing. new chapters were additional to the recent variation: a bankruptcy on nitrogen rejection to deal with state-of-the-art excessive nitrogen gases and a bankruptcy on gasoline processing plant operations to aid plant operators with optimizing their plant operations. moreover, total updates to Handbook of typical gasoline Transmission and Processing offer a clean examine new applied sciences and possibilities for fixing present fuel processing difficulties on plant layout and operation and on greenhouse gases emissions. It additionally does a superb task of highlighting the main concerns that has to be taken under consideration for any normal fuel undertaking in improvement.
- Covers all technical and operational elements of normal fuel transmission and processing in detail.
- Provides pivotal updates at the newest applied sciences, functions and solutions.
- Offers functional recommendation on layout and operation in line with engineering rules and working experiences.
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CHAPTER 1 Natural Gas Fundamentals 27 Energy consumed in operating a CNG project is about 40% of that of an LNG project. The threshold volume of gas reserves is relatively low for commercial viability, provided shipping costs can be kept low and work effectively. Greater than 85% of a CNG project cost is likely to be associated with the ships, which are based upon conventional bulk carriers with at least four competing certified containment designs (Hatt, 2003): EnerSea (US) VOTRANS carbon steel pressure cells; Trans Ocean Gas (Canada) fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) covering high-density polyethylene cells; TransCanada CPV steel liner cell overwrapped with a glass fiber laminate; Sea NG (Canada) patented Coselle of coiled X70 high-strength steel pipe wound into a cylindrical storage container.
This, in turn, causes the flow rate calculated in Eqn (1-22) to decrease as the reservoir depletes. Combining Eqns (1-22) and (1-23), and superimposing operating restrictions such as contract rates, facilities limitations (compression/pipeline/ processing) result in a forecast of production rate versus time. Production stops when the flow rate becomes uneconomic. The total gas that will have been produced at the time of abandonment is called the expected ultimate recovery (EUR). The original gas-in-place (G) is determined from geological estimates of the areal extent and thickness of the reservoir, as well as its porosity and saturation, or from analysis of production data.
The first natural gas pipeline longer than 200 miles was built in 1925, from Louisiana to Texas. Steady growth in the use of gas marked the early and mid-twentieth century. However, it was the shortages of crude oil in the late 1960s and early 1970s that forced major industrial nations to seek energy alternatives. Since those events, gas has become a central fossil fuel energy source. Today, natural gas has become extremely important as a concentrated, clean fuel for home heating and cooking and electrical power generation, and is sought after almost as much as oil.