By R. Germershausen (ed.)
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D iergoles are propellants which require that the fuel and the oxi dizer be introduced into the combustion chamber separately. Hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine and hydrazine derivatives, amides, ammonia, alcohols and boranes are all used as fuels. The most important oxidizers are oxygen, fluorine, nitric acid, nitrogen oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and oxygen difluoride. Table 102 gives the chemical composition and the boiling points TS of homogeneous liquid rocket fuels. The fuels listed in Table 102 are used singly or in combination with one another.
Today intercontinental m issiles carry warheads equivalent to some 50 megatons of TNT. The following sections deal with some details of chemical explo sives as far as possible. This handbook does not discuss nuclear charges in further detail, since it is lim ited to the examination of conventional weapons. For further information on nuclear weapons, and particularly their effect, the book "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons"  is recommended. 2 Classification of Explosives ,  On the suggestion of the Federal Office for Materials Testing (BAM), Berlin, explosive matter or materials capable of exploding are classified as shown in Figure 101.
Polybutadien - Acrylic acid polym ers have a very high perform ance and good physical characteristics. Propellants with polyvinylchloride (PVC) and cellulose acetate are also known as plastisols. To raise the specific impulse further, powdered light metals (Al, Mg) or Bor/m etal hydrides are added to the solid propellants. To change the linear burning rate, catalysts, such as copper or chromium oxide, are added as b a llis tic additives (plateau burning and mesa burning). The burning rate of heterogeneous solid propellants is strongly influenced by the particle size of the oxidizer.