Incentives and Test-Based Accountability in Education by National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social

By National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Board on Testing and Assessment, Committee on Incentives and Test-Based Accountability in Public Education, Stuart W. Elliott, Michael Hout

In fresh years there were expanding efforts to take advantage of responsibility platforms in line with large-scale checks of scholars as a mechanism for making improvements to scholar fulfillment. The federal No baby Left at the back of Act (NCLB) is a well-known instance of such an attempt, however it is simply the continuation of a gentle development towards higher test-based responsibility in schooling that has been occurring for many years. over the years, such responsibility structures incorporated ever-stronger incentives to encourage university directors, academics, and scholars to accomplish better.

Incentives and Test-Based responsibility in Education reports and synthesizes correct examine from economics, psychology, schooling, and comparable fields approximately how incentives paintings in academic responsibility structures. The booklet is helping determine conditions within which test-based incentives could have a favorable or a adverse impression on scholar studying and gives strategies for a way to enhance present test-based responsibility guidelines. an important instructions for additional study also are highlighted.

For the 1st time, learn and conception on incentives from the fields of economics, psychology, and academic size have all been pulled jointly and synthesized. Incentives and Test-Based responsibility in Education will tell humans in regards to the motivation of educators and scholars and tell coverage discussions approximately NCLB and nation responsibility platforms. schooling researchers, K-12 institution directors and academics, in addition to graduate scholars learning schooling coverage and academic dimension will use this booklet to profit extra concerning the motivation of educators and scholars. schooling coverage makers in any respect degrees of presidency will depend on this e-book to notify coverage discussions approximately NCLB and country responsibility systems.

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Test-based incentives for schools may cause some to focus on the full curriculum and others to focus on test preparation. In each case, it clearly matters how many people are affected in positive and negative ways and how large those effects are. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Incentives and Test-Based Accountability in Education 26 INCENTIVES AND TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY IN EDUCATION PSYCHOLOGICAL RESULTS AND ISSUES As in economics, psychology has a long-standing appreciation of the importance of incentives in motivating behavior—going back to the beginning of the discipline—with research over the past few decades showing the complexity of the relationship between incentives and behavior.

Incentives and Test-Based Accountability in Education 18 INCENTIVES AND TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY IN EDUCATION mance measures that occurs when incentives are attached to them. A performance measure may be generally correlated with the full range of outcomes without incentives—so that high levels of the measure are associated with overall good performance—but when incentives are attached to the performance measure, the actions taken to increase the performance measure on the margin may not increase overall performance at all.

The research in economic theory discussed in this chapter also raises two important points related to evaluating the success of incentive systems, nonincentivized performance measures for evaluation and weighing costs and benefits. • Nonincentivized performance measures for evaluation: Incentives will often lead people to find ways to increase measured performance that do not also improve the desired outcomes. Because of the resulting distortion in the performance measures used with the incentives, it is usually necessary to find different performance measures—that are not being used in the incentives system—to use when evaluating how the incentive system is working.

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