By M. Fennema (auth.)
Research into interlocking directorates and different organizational ties among huge organisations dates again to the start of the century. In Germany and the USA interlocking directorates grew to become an incredible technique of coordination and keep an eye on of huge organizations and banks on the finish of the 19th century and have been, hence, quite topic to clinical research and public debate. Trusts have been seemed with distrust, specially within the usa, the place John Moody's learn from 1904 was once considerably entitled the reality approximately Trusts. In Germany a lot consciousness was once paid to the role-or-the huge Berlin banks within the monetary improvement. the 1st huge learn in Germany carried the prolix identify the connection among the big German Banks and with targeted connection with the Iron (Jeidels, 1905). ---- --------- The reports within the usa have been predominantly precipitated or even conducted through committees of the Federal Congress. In Europe, however, the hard work move quickly took an interest within the styles of interlocking directorates. within the Netherlands, for instance, Wibaut, a socialist chief, performed a research on interlocking directorates, copying the examine layout of Jeidels. as a result, varied colleges might be wonderful from the beginning: the Marxian institution which built the concept that of finance capital to provide an explanation for the present interlocking directorates, and the institutional economists who used the concept that of monetary strength to give an explanation for an analogous phenomenon.
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And more than a hundred years later the joint-stock company is still regarded as one of the greatest innovations in human history. , team production) stems from technical necessity, given the level of technological development. Control and measurement of individual output stems logically from these requirements. Others, such as Marglin (1976), tend to argue the other way around. According to Marglin technological development is primarily induced by the need to control and discipline the worker, and scientific management is primarily a method of increasing exploitation rather than of increasing efficiency.
6. 1965 (Dooley) Tight-knit groups New York groups 1 • Morgan Guaranty Trust 1. New York 2. Chase Manhattan/Chemical 2. Chicago Bank/ New York Trust 3. San Francisco (Rockefeller) 4. Pittsburg 5. Los Angeles 3. First National City 6. Cleveland 4. Manufacturing Hanover 5. Sullivan and Cromwell 7. Detroit Marine Midland 6. Lehman-Goldman, Sachs 7. Harriman-Newmont Mining 8. Dillon, Read and Co. Regional groups Loose-knit groups 9. Mellon-First Boston Corp 10. Du Pont 11. Boston 12. Cleveland, of which Cyrus Eaton Humphrey-Hanna Kirby group 13.
The activities of such companies are coordinated at a higher level, outside the companies themselves ll (Menshikov, 1969: 205,206). Menshikov's concept is looser than Sweezy's, but neither Sweezy nor Menshikov tried to operationalize the concepts they used. The results are therefore difficult to compare, and the investigators avoid any rigorous comparison. Thus, while quoting the study of Perlo with approval, Menshikov distinguishes at least nineteen groups in comparison with Perlo's eight. He does not explain the difference anywhere.