International Regulation of Underwater Sound: Establishing by Elena McCarthy

By Elena McCarthy

Numerous incidents recommend that man-made sound injures and will kill marine mammals. This ebook bargains an target examine how ocean noise may be addressed given the shortcoming of regulatory constitution and the medical uncertainty over the consequences of noise on marine lifestyles. it's an important textual content for policymakers, governments and NGOs, biologists, environmental activists, , oceanographers, and people within the transport, engineering, and offshore oil and gasoline industries.

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A. Watkins, “Sound Structure and Directionality in Orcinus (killer whale),” Zoologica 51 (6) (1966): 71-76; also Ford and Fisher, above. , Schevill and Watkins, 1966. For echolocation duration, see Au, The Sonar of Dolphins, 134. J. , Marine Mammals and Noise, 185. A. B. Kuechle, “Quantitative Analysis of Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) Underwater Vocalizations at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica”, 72 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (1982): 1730-1738. C. O. R. , “Low-Frequency Ambient Sound in the North Pacific: Long Time Series Observations”, 106 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (1999): 3189-3200.

56 The previous section reviewed the threats presented by noise in the ocean. Understanding the origin of such noise is essential to defining the problem of ocean noise pollution. Therefore, the following two sections discuss naturally-occurring and anthropogenic sources of noise. html. 51 Funding levels from all federal agencies for marine mammal research are reported in the most recent report by George H. Waring, “Survey of Federally-Funded Marine Mammal Research and Studies: FY74-FY99,” (Bethesda, MD: US Marine Mammal Commission, 2001).

Pdf> 36 Scientific Aspects of Underwater Sound expected to continue. 120 It is reasonable to conclude that these trends in increased ship size would lead to an increase in noise from ship traffic. 123 They claim that improvements in technology such as variable pitch propellers and the widespread use of diesel electric systems has reduced noise from ships. Furthermore, they argue, because bigger ships are deeper in the water, propeller cavitation is reduced. 124 A database of ships’ acoustic signatures does exist but this data is limited.

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