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Width), lty=2, col="blue") The lty argument specifies the line type (style). These can be specified as a code (0=blank, 1=solid, 2=dashed, 3=dotted, 4=dotdash, 5=longdash, 6=twodash) or as a descriptive name "blank", "solid", "dashed", "dotted", "dotdash", "longdash", or "twodash"). Length), lty=2, col="blue") This customized plot is shown in Figure 4. Returning results from graphics methods Many high-level graphics methods also return results, which may be assigned to an S object or used directly in an expression.

4 11 ... The last example is the cross-classification or contingency table showing which land uses are associated with which flood frequency classes. 508e-06 Note that both the χ 2 statistic and the probability that it could occur by chance (the “p-value”) are given; the second is from the χ 2 table with the appropriate degrees of freedom (“df”). Here it is highly unlikely, meaning the flood frequency and liming are not independent factors. 14 Statistical models in S S specifies statistical models in symbolic form with model formulae.

3 ... 8 ... : 3 3 ... 34 The split method builds a list of data frames named by the level of the factor on which the original data frame was split. Here the original 150 observations have been split into three lists of 50, one for each species. Length) Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. 8 Max. 90 Simultaneous operations on subsets We often want to apply some computation to all subsets of a data frame. 7), compute each subset’s mean, and join them in one vector. Length field in the attached data frame, grouping the petal lengths by the Species categorical factor.