By M. Nastasi, et al.,

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14 Problem Set A set of problems, together with solutions, is available on the associated website. 2 The Forces between Molecules When molecules are near enough to inﬂuence one another, we need to concern ourselves with the balance between the forces of attraction and repulsion. We know that such attractive forces exist, for otherwise there would be nothing to bring molecules together into the solid and liquid states, and all matter would be gaseous. A study of the forces between atomic or molecular species constitutes the subject of intermolecular forces.

22) φ (r) = 4πε0 r The electric ﬁeld and the electrostatic potential due to an electric dipole, quadrupole and higher electric moments are discussed in all the elementary electromagnetism texts. The expressions can be written exactly in terms of the various distances and charges involved. For many applications, including our own, it is worthwhile examining the mathematical form of these ﬁelds for points in space that are far away from the charge distribution. We then refer to (for example) the ‘small’ electric dipole and so on.

The expressions can be written exactly in terms of the various distances and charges involved. For many applications, including our own, it is worthwhile examining the mathematical form of these ﬁelds for points in space that are far away from the charge distribution. We then refer to (for example) the ‘small’ electric dipole and so on. 23) 4π ε0 r 3 which falls off as 1/r 2 . It falls off faster with r than the potential due to a point charge because of the cancellation due to plus and minus charges.