By Ming Chao Gui
Kunming chinese language, as a rule considered as lingua franca of Yunnan province, is a big number of Yunnanese, a member of Southwestern Mandarin. dependent totally on the linguistic typology and geographic distribution, Kunming chinese language has been additional categorised in a single of the 4 significant subgroups of Yunnanese: principal Yunnan crew. Kunming chinese language, in addition to the entire dialects in Yunnan province, has a protracted historical past of improvement, that may most likely be traced again to Qin and Han dynasties. The languages of twenty-four ethnic teams inhabiting within the comparable speech neighborhood additionally play a crucial position within the improvement of Kunming chinese language. before Kunming chinese language is still a much less studied dialect and no whole paintings has been performed on its significant grammatical facets, specifically morphology and syntax. This publication is meant to supply a descriptive account for the grammar of Kunming chinese language as spoken in Kunming urban and its vicinities. the key issues mentioned are: phonetics and phonology; the phonological advancements some time past sixty years; morpheme different types and observe formation; grammatical different types, syntactic different types; sentence varieties and constructions. designated discussions are given to the idiosyncratic beneficial properties of the dialect: fronting and deletion of nasal in nasal rhymes, lack of rhotic preliminary sequence, breathy phonation; infix, the functionality and lack of "-er" suffix, note mixing, reduplication and its interplay with tone swap; query phrases and query formation. The booklet additionally positive factors an interlinear textual content with transcription and translation demonstrating the key beneficial properties mentioned.
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Additional info for Kunming Chinese
Since .. , then .. ' " t~t3jb4 'only if .. then .. ' 3) "fai I ta2 .. tshie2 .. " 'unless ... then .. ' 4) "ji4 .. tJQiU4 .. " 'once ... then .. 'or' .. as soon as .. ' a. pu4kua3 thaI ma I tsa2ka4 ~o2 wo3 tu I pu4 JOi1]4. ' (two subjects; order of two clauses: subordinate clause+ main clause) b. t~t2ji:>4 ni3 m:>2 t~hu2tJQhi4 thaI ma I tJQiu4 zav4 pu4 ta2. ' (two subjects; order of two clauses: subordinate clause + main clause) Some examples are: c. failta2 that tJQhil)lts14Je2 a. jii)Jwui4 thai t~ht2 pu4kua4 wo3 t~av3-nal tshe4 so3ji3 'not matter ..
One topic) 4. Vt-phrase as Predicate na I. ' meal Part d. mo2 ji4piel t~ht2fa4 ji4piel ~uo2hua4, t~olxul jie2 t~al. ' 5. Copula-phrase as Comment me3 tuolxil. (one topic) mir2 st4 thal-nal sav1;pl. ' f. 3. Complex sentences thai na1piel sa2la4jiu2. 1. Coordination Coordinate complex sentences contain two or more clauses. The different types of coordinate relationship are reflected by different categories of correlatives. The two or more clauses in the same complex sentence could have the same subject/topic or different subjects/topics.
Ta4 xo3 Comment/Predicate sweep Result Asp 4. simple sentence with no topic and no subject: 0 + Predicate, for example: 0 (no topic or subject) mau3 tr;;ia4 kuo4. ' 0 (no topic or subject) pai4. ' la3. 3. Structure of noun phrase in simple sentence tsaltsal ta4 xo3 la3 . ' (rna) 4. ' pu4 tr;;iol la3 . ' gil gil Kunming Chinese 75 LWIM340 t~ht2 ta4 la3 . Comment/Pred Result. ' This type of sentence usually is part of a discourse. The meaning can be understood from the context therefore the topic or subject can be null to be more economic.