Lectures on Data Security: Modern Cryptology in Theory and by Mihir Bellare (auth.), Ivan Bjerre Damgård (eds.)

By Mihir Bellare (auth.), Ivan Bjerre Damgård (eds.)

This instructional quantity relies on a summer time university on cryptology and knowledge protection held in Aarhus, Denmark, in July 1998. the 10 revised lectures provided are dedicated to center themes in sleek cryptololgy. in line with the tutorial goals of the college, straight forward introductions are supplied to principal issues, a number of examples are given of the issues encountered, and this can be supplemented with options, open difficulties, and connection with extra analyzing. The ensuing ebook is splendid as an updated introductory textual content for college kids and IT execs drawn to sleek cryptology.

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N. Reconstruction Phase: Let A ⊂ {1, . . , n} with |A| ≥ t. From their joint information, the players in A efficiently compute by elementary linear algebra λ ∈ K |A| such that MAT λ = . Write M b = s. Then s = b, = b, MAT λ = MA b, λ = sA , λ , which they can compute efficiently. It should be clear that reconstruction works as desired. e. sA = MA b. Let s˜ ∈ K be arbitrary, and let κ be such that MA κ = 0 and κ1 = 1. Then MA (b + (˜ s − s)κ) = sA and the first coordinate of the argument is equal to s˜.

Nevertheless, in some sense this fact is the basis for achieving it: based on the primitives outlined above, an honest player can force the other player to be honest as well or else the protocol simply halts with no advantage for the corrupt player. This has become an important design principle throughout the field of cryptography: often it is possible to start from a cryptographic protocol that is secure if its participants are semi-honest and to transform it into a protocol secure against malicious adversaries, by forcing each player to prove that he behaved as a semi-honest participant.

Another application of commitments is mutually random coins. Here players A and B want to establish a bit (or a string) that is random if one of them is honest. A simple protocol goes as follows. A selects a random bit bA and sends to player B a commitment to it. Player B selects a random bit bB and sends it to A, who opens the commitment. The bit b is defined as b = bA ⊕ bB . OT Secure against Malicious Attacks. Returning to the problem of defending against malicious attacks in OT, we now show how we can defend against these attacks by the techniques of [54].

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