By Jonathan B. Losos
Adaptive radiation, which ends while a unmarried ancestral species provides upward thrust to many descendants, each one tailored to another a part of the surroundings, is in all probability the one most vital resource of organic variety within the residing global. one of many best-studied examples includes Caribbean Anolis lizards. With approximately four hundred species, Anolis has performed a tremendous function within the improvement of ecological concept and has turn into a version process exemplifying the mixing of ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral reports to appreciate evolutionary diversification. This significant paintings, written by way of one of many best-known investigators of Anolis, reviews and synthesizes a tremendous literature. Jonathan B. Losos illustrates how assorted medical techniques to the questions of variation and diversification might be built-in and examines evolutionary and ecological questions of curiosity to a vast diversity of biologists.
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Extra resources for Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles (Organisms and Environments)
A. garmani is the only exception. 7 Crown giants. (a) A. Smallwoodi, Cuba. Photo courtesy of Veronika Holanova; (b) A. baleatus, Hispaniola. Photo courtesy of Rick Stanley; (c) A. cuvieri, Puerto Rico; (d) A. garmani, Jamaica. FIGURE TWIG ANOLES Twig anoles are the most extreme of the ecomorphs in just about every respect. 49 Behaviorally, they are active searchers, often moving steadily at low speed for extended periods. They search for prey by moving slowly on narrow surfaces, investigating holes, cracks, leaves and other places in which prey may be hidden (Fig.
As previously mentioned, dewlaps vary in color, pattern, and size. The observation that sympatric species almost invariably differ in at least one of these three attributes (Fig. , 2007). This hypothesis is supported by an experimental study that examined interspecific aggression between males of A. cybotes and A. 33 When unaltered males of the two species were placed together, they for the most part ignored each other. However, when the dewlap of both males was altered such that the A. marcanoi had a white, cybotes-like dewlap, and vice versa (such that each male encountered a heterospecific sporting a conspecific dewlap), levels of aggressive behavior were significantly higher (Losos, 1985a).
Photo courtesy of Kevin de Queiroz; (b) A. olssoni, Hispaniola; (c) A. pulchellus, Puerto Rico. FIGURE TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE EXISTENCE OF DISCRETE ECOMORPH CLASSES It’s one thing to assert the idea that ecomorphs exist and quite another to demonstrate it statistically. Although the idea of ecomorphs is now commonly applied in many different taxonomic groups,51 quantitative morphological and ecological analysis supporting such a designation is still rare; such tests require investigating whether ecomorphs form 51.