# Mechanical Engineering Handbook - Thermodynamic Cycles by William J. Cook

By William J. Cook

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Extra resources for Mechanical Engineering Handbook - Thermodynamic Cycles

Example text

Special attention is to be given to the interrelationship between the ﬁelds of the parameters of ﬂow and temperature or concentration with account for the smallness, in the general case, of the measured velocity and heat ﬂux compared to the corresponding values for forced convection. Like in the majority of experimental works, in studying free convection it is necessary to consider mainly two basic points relating to conducting experiments. The ﬁrst concerns the measurement technique and measuring equipment and the other the experimental equipment and the ways of the implementation of the speciﬁc type of ﬂow and of heat transfer.

As Tw decreases, the inﬂuence of the stratiﬁcation becomes more signiﬁcant. These eﬀects are felt more a strongly for large Pr numbers. 7 Loss of Stability and Transition to Turbulence 25 stratiﬁcation of the temperature outside the boundary layer and the boundary layer near the vertical surface. The times of the start of transition which are in good agreement with the experimental data on ﬂow visualization with the aid of interferograms, are determined on the basis of the dimensional analysis with a count for the vertical temperature gradient and the analogy between free and forced convections.

The process of transition from a laminar to a turbulent mode of ﬂow nears a vertical surface for free and forced convection is similar. However, there are also characteristic distinctive features of the development of this process. In the forced convection ﬂows the regions with high ﬂow shear represent a source of secondary instability and cause high-frequency oscillations in the boundary layer leading to the formation of turbulent patches. The transition to turbulence for natural convection is characterized by the interdependence of the velocity and temperature ﬁelds, as the result of which the Pr number becomes an additional parameter essential for the transient process.