Mechanical Engineering Handbook - Thermodynamic Cycles by William J. Cook

By William J. Cook

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Extra resources for Mechanical Engineering Handbook - Thermodynamic Cycles

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Special attention is to be given to the interrelationship between the fields of the parameters of flow and temperature or concentration with account for the smallness, in the general case, of the measured velocity and heat flux compared to the corresponding values for forced convection. Like in the majority of experimental works, in studying free convection it is necessary to consider mainly two basic points relating to conducting experiments. The first concerns the measurement technique and measuring equipment and the other the experimental equipment and the ways of the implementation of the specific type of flow and of heat transfer.

As Tw decreases, the influence of the stratification becomes more significant. These effects are felt more a strongly for large Pr numbers. 7 Loss of Stability and Transition to Turbulence 25 stratification of the temperature outside the boundary layer and the boundary layer near the vertical surface. The times of the start of transition which are in good agreement with the experimental data on flow visualization with the aid of interferograms, are determined on the basis of the dimensional analysis with a count for the vertical temperature gradient and the analogy between free and forced convections.

The process of transition from a laminar to a turbulent mode of flow nears a vertical surface for free and forced convection is similar. However, there are also characteristic distinctive features of the development of this process. In the forced convection flows the regions with high flow shear represent a source of secondary instability and cause high-frequency oscillations in the boundary layer leading to the formation of turbulent patches. The transition to turbulence for natural convection is characterized by the interdependence of the velocity and temperature fields, as the result of which the Pr number becomes an additional parameter essential for the transient process.

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