By Christophor Dishovsky, Alexander Pivovarov, Hendrik Benschop
This ebook includes specified contributions within the zone of safety opposed to chemical terrorism by means of specialists from former Warsaw Pact international locations. Decontamination and scientific therapy are very important features of safety from results after intoxications with chemical brokers. The e-book covers subject matters together with new techniques in pre-treatment and prophylaxis of nerve agent intoxication, and prognosis of publicity to chemical agents.
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Extra resources for Medical Treatment of Intoxications and Decontamination of Chemical Agents in the Area of Terrorist Attack (Nato Security through Science Series A:)
A presumptive agent must not only be highly toxic but also "suitably highly toxic" so that it is not too difficult to handle. • The substance must be capable of being stored for long periods in containers without degradation and without corroding the packaging material. • It must be relatively resistant to atmospheric water and oxygen so that it does not lose effect when dispersed. It must also withstand the heat developed when dispersed. • CW agents can be classified in many different ways. There are, for example, volatile substances, which mainly contaminate the air, or persistent substances, which are involatile and therefore mainly cover surfaces.
As Prof. M. Nabivach, Dr. A. Gerasimenko informed about problem of automotive fuel: quality and environmental safety, motor vehicle pollution is ever increasing, a great many hazardous compounds being discharged near the ground not only on highways but also in housing areas. Of all the ingredients of automotive fuel, aromatic hydrocarbons are the most toxic, benzene being the worst for its carcinogenic properties. Toluene and xylene have narcotic action. Fuel composition is a major factor that determines which compounds are present in the exhaust gases.
Several measures may help remedy the situation with fuels: (a) to introduce new governmental specifications for the fuels to limit the aromatic contents, (b) to impose restrictions on sales of adulterated fuels based on more stringent control of fuel quality, (c) to carry out certification of bodies having a right to sell automotive fuel, (d) to put heavy environmental taxes on low quality fuel to be paid by both the producer and the distributor, (e) to get involved the governmental standardization bodies and consumer societies, and (f) to use state-of-the-art additives enabling a more complete fuel combustion and therefore improved environmental performance of vehicles.