By Yuzhuo Li
An authoritative, systematic, and complete description of present CMP technology
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) presents the best measure of planarization of any recognized method. the present common for built-in circuit (IC) planarization, CMP is enjoying an more and more vital function in different similar functions similar to microelectromechanical structures (MEMS) and desktop hard disk production. This reference makes a speciality of the chemical features of the expertise and comprises contributions from the key specialists on particular purposes. After an in depth assessment of the basics and simple technology of CMP, Microelectronic purposes of Chemical Mechanical Planarization:
offers in-depth insurance of quite a lot of cutting-edge applied sciences and applications
offers info on new designs, services, and rising applied sciences, together with issues like CMP with nanomaterials and 3D chips
Discusses forms of CMP instruments, pads for IC CMP, modeling, and the applicability of tribometrology to varied elements of CMP
Covers nanotopography, CMP functionality and disorder profiles, CMP waste remedy, and the chemistry and colloidal houses of the slurries utilized in CMP
offers a standpoint at the possibilities and demanding situations of the subsequent fifteen years
entire with case stories, this can be a helpful, hands-on source for execs, together with strategy engineers, gear engineers, formula chemists, IC brands, and others. With systematic association and questions on the finish of every bankruptcy to facilitate studying, it's an incredible creation to CMP and a very good textual content for college kids in complicated graduate classes that hide CMP or similar semiconductor production procedures.
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Additional info for Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization
1 PREPARATION OF PLANAR SURFACE Multilevel Metallization and the Need for Planarization In a state-of-the-art integrated circuit, there are many active and passive elements including millions of transistors, capacitors, and resistors on a single chip . In this ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) era, the number of transistors per chip has already crossed the 40 million mark and is expected to increase to more than a billion over the next decade . These discrete elements must be connected with conductive wiring to form a circuit.
54. Shen JJ, Costas WB, Cook LM. The effect of post chemical mechanical planarization bufﬁng on defect density of tungsten and oxide wafers. J Electorchem Soc 1998;145(12):4240–4243. 55. Bartosh K, Peters D, Hughes M, Li Y, Cheemalapati K, Chowdhury R. Organic residue removal through novel surface preparation chemistries and processes for CMP and post CMP applications. Proceedings of 10th International VLSI/ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference; 2003. p 533–539. 56. Hegde S, Babu SV. Removal of shallow and deep scratches and pits from polished copper ﬁlms.
13 shows a piece of jewelry made with a damascene process. 13 Ref. 43). 14 Sword made with a damascene process (a) and typical patterns on a damascus metal (b) (from Ref. 44,43). The technique was apparently also used to make the legendary Damascus swords. The details for making Damascus steel remain a mystery even with the presence of numerous well-preserved samples. Recent research into the structure and composition of the steel reveals that the strength of the steel was a result of carbon nanotubes and carbide nanowires present in the structure of the forged metal.