By Paulo Se´ rgio Panse Silveira and Eduardo Massad
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Extra resources for Modeling and Simulating Morphological Evolution in an Artificial Life Environment
We shall consider mainly the observational evidence for slow mass loss, and the alternative schemes for causing it. We shall also consider the observed mass loss in planetary nebulae, which may be caused this way, but not supernova or nova explosions. Thus we are left to consider, (i) radiation pressure driven winds, which have been discussed for red giants by Weymann (1962), Hoyle and Wickramasinghe (1962), and Gehrz and Woolf (1971). Then there are travelling waves (ii) which should only be important for pulsating stars, and can so be observationally distinguished.
Biermann (1968) investigated the stability of shell burning in Red Giants, with the result that the shells seem to be stable. Recently Richstone (1973) has studied stellar models near and during the onset of helium flash, and he found that all models investigated which were spherically stable were also stable with respect to non-spherical perturbations. Some flash models were unstable but the e-folding time of the non-spherical instability was longer than the e-folding time of the spherical instability.
The broken lines indicate the two shell sources eating outward. In intervals of about 4000 years thermal pulses occur forming short-living convective zones (vertical lines above the helium burning shell) which approach the hydrogen burning shell. The Scalo-U1rich plume mixing is supposed to occur as soon as the top of such a convective zone penetrates into the hydrogen burning shell. CIRCULATION AND MIXING 35 occur in an evolved star if carbon enriched material is brought up into a hydrogen rich outer region.