By Hsu L.
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Critical thinking and analysis come to the forefront. Complex tasks are structured and a prototype database begins to evolve. We have learned how to model the many modules in our logical database and to use these models to verify with management, users, and systems personnel that we have identified the processes and data requirements of the enterprise. Having established a baseline of existing requirements, we eliminated redundancies and inefficiencies. Our investigations, interviews, and questionnaires have identified the enhancements desired and we understand the logic necessary to incorporate them into our logical database.
We are not using the whole key for every record and, worse yet, there is redundant data (Name and Address) being stored. That is, we are not normalized. Although normalization is discussed in detail in Chapter 4, it is helpful to know that multiple values for a single attribute indicate the need for another entity class. WEAK ENTITIES In our example, we would convert the attribute Hobby into an entity class. The degree of the relationship (cardinality) between Individual and Hobby would be a many-to-many or an M:N relationship.
They also help us with physical data partitioning—especially when a common database exists in distributed environments. Data partitioning involves assigning fragments of the common database to the location in a network from which most transactions that use that data originate. This saves network access time and is more efficient. ATTRIBUTE DOMAINS The domain of an attribute is a set of values from which the attribute can be specified. That is, an attribute’s domain is the set of legal or expected values for that attribute.