By C. R. Bagshaw (auth.)
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Extra resources for Muscle Contraction
The minimum exposure times have shown a steady decrease with increasingly powerful X-ray sources and more sensitive detection systems. Using intense synchrotron radiation and an electronic position-sensitive X-ray counter the stronger peaks can now be detected within 100 ms . The signal from the counter may be stored in successive time-bins of a computer memory, allowing a time course to be built up by repeated stimulation. A frog sartorius muscle will survive several hundred contractions which enables the X-ray pattern to be obtained with about 1 ms time resolution.
Although the independent force generator hypothesis provides a viable mechanism for filament sliding, it reopens the question as to the nature of the force on a smaller scale. The properties of asynchronous insect flight muscle appear very different from skeletal muscle, although the mechanism of force generation at the molecular level is probably rather similar. Its I-bands are very short and the thick filaments are connected to the Z-line by an elastic protein which gives a high resting stiffness.
Tethering the heads to a filament backbone will therefore cause motion of the myosin filament relative to the actin filament. This is the basic framework envisaged by Lymn and Taylor . In discussion of this and subsequent models S I has been equated with the myosin head, M, and ATP and ADP. Pi are abbreviated as T and D respectively. D. Angle changes are assumed to occur between the A. M. D, A. M and A. M. T states (Fig. 3). 4) the A. M intermediate is depicted with an attachment angle of 45°.