By Tian Ran Lin PhD, Boyun Guo PhD, Shanhong Song Ph.D., Ali Ghalambor PhD, Jacob Chacko
Offshore Pipelines covers the entire scope of pipeline improvement from pipeline designing, fitting, and checking out to working. It gathers the authors' stories won via years of designing, fitting, checking out, and working submarine pipelines. the purpose is to supply engineers and administration body of workers a suggestion to accomplish economical administration of their offshore and deepwater pipeline improvement and operations.
The booklet is geared up into 3 elements. half I provides layout practices utilized in constructing submarine oil and gasoline pipelines and risers. Contents of this half comprise number of pipe dimension, coating, and insulation. half II presents guidance for pipeline installations. It makes a speciality of controlling bending stresses and pipe balance in the course of laying pipelines. half III offers with difficulties that happen in the course of pipeline operations. themes coated contain pipeline checking out and commissioning, circulation insurance engineering, and pigging operations.
This booklet is written essentially for brand new and skilled engineers and administration body of workers who paintings on oil and gasoline pipelines in offshore and deepwater. it will probably even be used as a reference for students of undergraduate and graduate degrees in Ocean Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Petroleum Engineering.
* Pipeline layout engineers will find out how to layout inexpensive pipelines permitting long term operability and safety.
* Pipeline operation engineers and administration group of workers will the right way to function their pipeline platforms in a price powerful manner.
* Deepwater pipelining is a brand new know-how built some time past ten years and starting to be fast.
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The references show that CD presents a peak for Kc values between 10 and 20, CL decreases with increasing Kc values, and CI increases with increasing Kc values. 3 is recommended for Kc values less than 20 (Sarpkaya, 1979). The frequency parameter (b) is defined as b ¼ Dn=T . , 1983). 5 is for Kc values greater than 160 (Jones, 1976). 3 Waves and Currents Acting Simultaneously In addition to the variables previously mentioned, the steady current ratio Rc ¼ Uc =Um must be taken into account for the selection of CD , CL , and CI .
3] Notes: 1. Credit can be taken for external pressure for gathering lines or flowlines when the MAOP (Pi ) is applied at the wellhead or at the seabed. For export lines, when Pi is applied on a platform deck, the head of fluid shall be added to Pi for the pipeline section on the seabed (particularly for two-phase flow). 2. Including pre-fabricated or retrofit sections and pipeline section in a J-tube. 3. 8 imposes Ph ¼ 1:4 Pi for offshore risers but allows onshore testing of prefabricated portions.
Flow assurance analysis is described in Chapter 15. 8. Other codes such as Z187 (Canada), DnV (Norway), and IP6 (UK) have essentially the same requirements, but should be checked by the readers. ), material grade is usually taken as X-60 or X-65 (414 or 448 MPa) for high-pressure pipelines or on deepwater. Higher grades can be selected in special cases. Lower grades such as X-42, X-52, or X-56 can be selected in shallow water or for low-pressure, large diameter pipelines to reduce material cost, or in cases where high ductility is required for improved impact resistance.