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Extra resources for On Studying Organizational Cultures: Diagnosis and Understanding (de Gruyter Series In Nonlinear Analysis And Applications)
Artifacts In Schein's work artifacts are defined as: At the surface we have the level of artifacts, which includes all the phenomena that one sees, hears, and feels when one encounters a new group with an unfamiliar culture. Artifacts would include the visible products of the group such as the architecture of its physical environments, its language, its technology and products, its artistic creations, and its style as embodied in clothing, manners of address, emotional displays, myths and stories told about the organization, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies and so on...
Power and status differences are thus visible both within the department and in its relations with outsiders. These differences operate both as easily accessible information about on what level in the organization one finds oneself, and as a reward given when one moves up to a higher rank in the organization. However, differences in power and status may also be heard in the department. For example: how much one speaks depends on power and status. At the executive meetings between the managers of the department and the minister, there are great differences in how much the various managers speak.
The company's products must provide for immediate understanding of their capabilities and manner of operation. 3. Credibility. We must constantly strive towards establishing confidence in the company, its actions and dealings and in its products. 4. Domesticity. The products are designed for the use by people in the home. They must be problem-free and easy to operate - even though they are technically advanced. The Levels of Culture 29 5. Essentiality. The products must be concept-bearing. Design should be focused on the essentials of the concept.