By Charles Baudelaire
One of many founding texts of literary modernism.Set in a contemporary, city Paris, the prose items during this quantity represent an additional exploration of the terrain Baudelaire had coated in his verse masterpiece, The vegetation of Evil town and its squalor and inequalities, the pressures of time and mortality, and the liberation supplied by way of the sensual delights of intoxication, paintings, and ladies. released posthumously in 1869, Paris Spleen used to be a landmark booklet within the improvement of the style of prose poetry--a structure which Baudelaire observed as fairly suited to expressing the sentiments of uncertainty, flux, and freedom of his age--and one of many founding texts of literary modernism.
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Meanwhile, to develop this theme of capitalism as a force denigrating the national consciousness, from 1914 onwards Orage used issues where capitalists became prominent in the conduct of the war, especially war loans, to demonstrate the alleged antithesis between patriotic and capitalist goals. Ever-higher rates of interest on war loans were irrefutable evidence of capitalism’s corrosive nature, placing private interest before that of the nation. Analysis of the first war loan of £350 million not only claimed that it would yield its investors £14 million a year in interest, but also that it would ultimately cost the state in excess of £500 million.
The era of the lion was needed to tear down the era of the camel, and so Orage presented Nietzsche himself as one of the ‘laughing lions’ who were trying to achieve this creative destruction. Crystalizing the creative destructive tenor here, Tom Steele’s analysis on these writings is worth stressing. ‘Out of this holocaust’, Steele argues ‘would come the era of the child who now in Orage’s text appears recognizably the superman of Consciousness . . 8 So these writings drawing heavily on Nietzsche show a clearly modernist attitude to confronting modernity, diagnosing it as radically decadent.
Pacifists had demonstrated themselves to be intellectually naïve with respect to this innate flaw in the human condition. The pacifist method of pursuing peace by simplistically refusing to use force to repel an enemy was doomed to failure when confronted by ruthless opposition. For peace to exist at all, enemies of freedom and liberty needed to be fought periodically. 21 The war was one such occasion, and defeating Germany was just such a cause. This helps to clarify why Orage rejected what he regarded as erroneously ‘progressive’ notions of warfare as a phenomenon that could be eliminated through the steady introduction of reason into collective human existence.