By Professor Bernard P. Tissot, Professor Dietrich H. Welte (auth.)
Current and authoritative with many complex innovations for petroleum geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, or engineers engaged within the look for or creation of crude oil and traditional gasoline, or attracted to their habitats and the criteria that keep watch over them, this booklet is a superb reference. it is strongly recommended with no reservation. AAPG Bulletin.
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11. Silicoflagellatae: 7 Distephanus speculum. 111. Diatomeae: 8 Coscinodiscus concinnus, 9 Rhizosolenia faerösensis, 10 Rhizosolenia seligera, 11 Chaetoceras decipiens, 12 Biddulphia mobiliensis, 13 Ditylum brightwellii, 14 Nitschia closterium. IV. Protozoae: 15 Tintinnopsis campanula, 16 Tintinnopsis subulata. V. Cirripediae: 17 Nauplius var. verruca Strömia. VI. Copepodae: 18 Temora longicornis Benthonic organisms, such as large kelp and rock weed, are by definition attached to the bottom and are restricted to areas of shallow water depths usually not exceeding 50 m.
10). Ursolic acid (plants) Oleanone series Ursone series C30 • Lupeol (plants) Lupone series C3Q. Oiploptene (ferns. blue-green algae. o(-Onocerin (plants) C3Q' Lanosterol (animal tissues) Tetracyclic triterpenes Fig. 10. Prominent triterpenes of living organisms as precursors of fossil triterpenoids 40 Chemical Composition of the Biomass: Bacteria, Plankton, Higher Plants plants, it should be emphasized that one kind, the hopane series (Fig. 10), is found in relatively large concentrations in bacteria and blue-green algae (Dorsselaer, 1975).
However, in sub-aquatic environments, the deposition of fine-grained sediments limits access of dissolved molecular oxygen. Thus, the activity of aerobic bacteria comes to a halt when the limited amount of oxygen trapped in the sediments is exhausted. In this connection, it is also important to realize that air contains 21 % (vol) of oxygen, whereas water normally contains only a few ml of oxygen per l. Therefore, in practical sense, organic matter is only preserved and fossilized in sub-aquatic sediments.