By Surinder Parkash
State-of-the-Art Petroleum Fuels production Techniques
Written by means of a world specialist in petroleum engineering, this is often the main up to date and finished guide at the production, mixing, and finish makes use of of petroleum fuels and uniqueness items. This definitive quantity comprises in-depth technical details on petroleum processing in addition to standards and attempt tools for petroleum items. the most recent sustainable production ideas designed to lessen atmospheric pollutants and preserve petroleum feedstock also are coated. this is often an important source for an individual concerned with the producing, mixing, garage, and buying and selling of petroleum fuels and area of expertise items.
Petroleum Fuels production Handbook covers:
- Liquefied petroleum gas
- Diesel fuels
- Residual gas oils
- Petroleum coke
- Carbon black
- Lubricant base stocks
- Lubricating oils and greases
- Synthetic lubricants
- Turbine oils
- Re-refined used oil
- Metalworking fluids
- Metal completing quenchants
- Hydraulic fluids
- Hydrocarbon solvents
- Refrigeration gases
- Transformer oils
- Mineral oils
Read or Download Petroleum Fuels Manufacturing Handbook: including Specialty Products and Sustainable Manufacturing Techniques (Mechanical Engineering) PDF
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Additional resources for Petroleum Fuels Manufacturing Handbook: including Specialty Products and Sustainable Manufacturing Techniques (Mechanical Engineering)
Specifications are set to control these properties based on their vapor pressure and distillation. The Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is vapor pressure of gasoline at 100°F. RVP and boiling range determine the ease of starting, the engine warmup, and the vapor lock temperature. The RVP of various gasoline grades varies between 35 and 84 kPa. The RVP of gasoline is adjusted according to the ambient conditions of the region where the fuel is being used. RVP is adjusted to a lower value during the summer and a higher value during the winter months.
0 Distillation IBP 10 vol % °F 50 vol % °F 90 vol % °F End point Lead content Olefins or Bromine number PONA Sulfur Vapor pressure, Reid ASTM D 86 °F ppb Vol % Max. Wt % kPa @100°F Max. Max. 07 75 IP 224 ASTM D 1319 ASTM D 1159 ASTM D 1266 ASTM D 323 Petrochemical Naphtha In refineries, petrochemical naphtha is blended from the straight run naphtha ex-crude distillation column and hydrocracker naphtha. Naphtha used as petrochemical feedstock must be highly paraffinic (minimum 70 vol %) with low aromatic content (less than 11 vol %).
Net heat of combustion is 20,000 Btu/lb or 11,300 kcal/kg, which is much more than natural gas on a per unit volume basis. Using naphtha in place of gas requires adjustment of operating conditions to avoid high boiler temperatures of 2000°F or more. Also, use of naphtha results in higher corrosion rates due to the sulfur in naphtha, which in turn causes shorter run length or more plant maintenance. 69 CHAPTER 3 GASOLINE Gasoline may be defined as the fuel derived from crude oil, in the boiling range of 100 to 400°F, for use in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.