By Robert E. Maples
Vital textual content for procedure engineers, refinery schedulers, planners, and executives. Maples offers an equipped examine the yield info and homes of goods from refinery procedures and the way to exploit this knowledge in appearing technique economics reports of assorted forms. extra, working and capital bills are mentioned for monetary review of either unmarried approaches and whole refineries. Yield correlations are provided for the entire vital, commercially-established petroleum refinery tactics. each one correlation is followed via working requisites plus the capital expense of a customary unit.
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5–8 Fuel Consumption Fig. 5–9 Relative Fuel Consumption ENERGY RESOURCES AND TRANSPORTATION FUELS 59 PETROLEUM REFINERY P ROCESS ECONOMICS Fig. 5–10 Fuel Consumption vs. 19 Fig. 5–11 Average Car Fuel Economy 60 CHAPTER 5 • ENERGY RESOURCES AND TRANSPORTATION FUELS Additives. In addition to the hydrocarbons comprising the bulk of blended gasoline, a number of other materials are added for various purposes: • Antioxidants protect against gum formation and peroxides (knock inducers) formation. • Metal deactivators tie up trace amounts of copper to prevent their catalyzing oxidation and gum formation.
40 CHAPTER 4 • Fig. S. S. Product Demand as Percent of Crude Charge 41 PETROLEUM REFINERY P ROCESS ECONOMICS Fig. S. Refinery Product Slate (Millions of Barrels per Day) Fig. 4–7 Gasoline Sales Volume (Millions of Gallons per Day) 42 CHAPTER 4 • REFINERY PROCESSING: AN OVERVIEW Cogeneration of power by integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) uses low value problem streams such as asphalt, vacuum residual, visbreaker tar, and coke to produce steam, electricity, and synthesis gas. Some researchers are studying the biocatalytic desulfurization of gas oils and the bio–destruction of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).
With strict environmental regulations in effect and crude’s higher sulfur content, products from crude distillation today require further (sometimes multi-step) processing to produce acceptable finished products. 29 PETROLEUM REFINERY P ROCESS ECONOMICS Refinery Products Of the multitude of products produced by the refiner today, only those listed below are considered in this work. They are listed in order of increasing boiling temperatures, since distillation is the primary means employed for separating refinery products.