Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant-Pathogen Interactions by I. J. Misaghi

By I. J. Misaghi

There was an important surge of curiosity within the research of the body structure and biochemistry of plant host-parasite interactions in recent times, as evidenced by way of the variety of study papers at the moment being released at the topic. The in­ creased curiosity is perhaps in keeping with the proof that potent administration of many plant illnesses is, for the main half, contingent upon a transparent realizing of the character of host-parasite interactions. This intensified examine attempt demands a better variety of books, comparable to this one, designed to bring together, synthesize, and overview greatly scattered items of knowledge in this topic. The examine of host-parasite interactions issues the fight among vegetation and pathogens, which has been incessant all through their coevolution. Such in­ teractions are usually hugely advanced. Pathogens have constructed subtle of­ fensive platforms to parasitize vegetation, whereas vegetation have developed diverse defen­ sive innovations to push back strength pathogens. at times, the result of a particular host-parasite interplay turns out to depend on the presence or efficacy of the plant's safeguard approach. A plant may well develop into diseased while a parasite manages to invade it, unhindered by means of preexisting safety structures and/or with out eliciting the plant's prompted resistance response(s). Absence of disorder may perhaps re­ flect the shortcoming of the invading pathogen to beat the plant's protection sys­ tem(s).

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However, solutions of pectolytic digests do not cause tissue maceration if the pectolytic enzymes are removed (Basham and Bateman, 1975b). 3. Protoplast death may be the result of the activity of hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of pectolytic enzyme activity in Erwinia carotovora-infected cauliflower floret tissue (Lund, 1973) and in Verticillium-infected cotton tissue (Mussell, 1973). Strand et al. (1976) have shown that purified polygalacturonases from V. albo-atrum and Fusarium oxysporum released proteins with peroxidase activity from wall fractions prepared from potato tuber tissue, carrot xylem parenchema, and etiolated cotton hypocotyls.

1972. In Phytotoxins in Plant Diseases (R. K. S. Wood. A. Ballio. and A. Graniti. ), pp. 251-272. With permission from the authors and Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. Pathogen-Produced Toxins 41 Figure 9. Proposed structure for victoxinine. , and Arigoni, D. 1972. J. Chern. Soc. Chern. Cornrnun. ] 3. , 1968; Hanchey, 1980). Victorin-induced cell wall lesions in oat roots may result from activation of host cell wall enzymes (Hanchey, 1980). 4. Chemical Nature of Victorin The toxin is considered to be made of two components: a peptide and a heterocyclic moiety (Pringle and Braun, 1957).

Reproduction of Disease Symptoms by the Toxin This criterion also is considered to have certain limitations. For example, under natural conditions toxins may not act alone. A toxin might induce disease by predisposing the plant to the detrimental effects of other products produced in the diseased tissue (Rudolph, 1976). Moreover, wilting and necrosis can be induced by a large number of natural and artificial products (Rudolph, 1976). Yoder (1980) has pointed out that a comparison of the physiological changes induced by the pathogen and by the toxin might be more meaningful than that of disease symptoms.

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