Physiology: PreTest Self-Assessment and Review by James P. Ryan, Michael B. Wang

By James P. Ryan, Michael B. Wang

Those "500 questions, solutions, and rationalization" books are designed to simulate the us clinical Licensing exam (USMLE) Step 1. each one is authored by means of knowledgeable within the box and has been reviewed by means of scholars who've lately handed the examination. As Step 1 is turning into more and more medical in nature, while acceptable, medical vignette-style questions requiring a two-step reasoning approach also are incorporated. the entire Pretest titles contain a "high-yield" truth part to enhance key suggestions.

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Qxd 36 11/13/01 4:24 PM Page 36 Physiology 14. Nicotinic receptors are responsible for a. b. c. d. e. Producing the skeletal muscle end-plate potential Decreasing the rate of phase-4 depolarization at the SA node Increasing the force of stomach contractions Delaying the emptying of liquids from the stomach Decreasing the excitability of sympathetic postganglionic neurons 15. Inactivation of phospholamban in cardiac muscle decreases a. b. c. d. e. The velocity of contraction in smooth muscle The duration of contraction The strength of contraction The depolarization required to initiate a contraction The amount of calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum 16.

The scala vestibuli is separated from the scala media by Reissner’s membrane; the scala media and the scala tympani are separated by the basilar membrane. The stapes is attached to the membrane of the oval window, which separates the middle ear from the scala vestibuli. The scala tympani is separated from the middle ear by the round window. The organ of Corti sits on the basilar membrane. The fluid within the scala vestibuli and scala tympani (perilymph) is similar to interstitial fluid; the fluid within the scala media (endolymph) resembles intracellular fluid in that it contains a high concentration of K+.

Bending the stereocilia toward the kinocilium causes K+ channels on the hair cells to open; bending the stereocilia away from kinocilium causes K+ channels to close. Auditory hair cells are unusual because they are depolarized by the flow of K+ into the cell. K+ can flow into the hair cells because the endolymph surrounding the apical portions of the hair cells contains a high K+ concentration. qxd 28 11/13/01 4:23 PM Page 28 Physiology +80 mV Stereocilia Kinocilium +80 mV Stereocilia K K + K + K + Cuticular Plate Cuticular Plate -130 mV -140 mV HAIR CELL HAIR CELL -50 mV - 60 mV 0 mV Kinocilium + + Driving Force on K = EM – EK = -130 mV – -90 mV = -40 mV 0 mV 2+ Ca The basilar membrane is most stiff at the base of the cochlea (near the middle ear) and most compliant at the apex of the cochlea.

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